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ES101 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Passenger Pigeon, Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, Natural Capital

Environmental Studies
Course Code
Edmund Okoree
Study Guide

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Environmental Studies Mid-Term
Environmental Issues
Five main issues
o Air Pollution
o Waste Pollution
o Biodiversity Depletion
o Food Supply Problem-loss of farmland
o Waste Production-hazardous
Environmental Terms
Environment: everything that affects us for living
Ecology: interaction between organisms and environment
Enviro Studies: understanding human systems
Enviro Science: understanding science with relation to organisms
Environmentalism: approach/belief in understanding environment
Natural Capital: everything earth provides us
Natural Capital
What we need to sustain us
o Sun, water, air, land, plants and animals
Overdrawing on capital leads to;
o Animal and plant extinction
o Unusable land
Environmental Goods and Services
o Sun, air, land, water, living organisms
Services-examples of services:
o Filter air quality
o Recreation
o Resources
o Eco-Tourism
o Pollinators
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment

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Four general services provided
o Products people obtain from ecosystems
o Ex. Food, fuel, water, resources
o Necessary for the production of all other ecosystem services
o Ex. Primary production, soil formation, production of oxygen
o Benefits people obtain from ecosystem
o Ex. Air quality maintenance, climate regulation, erosion control
o Nonmaterial benefits people obtain
o Ex. Recreation, spiritual enrichment
Living off nature`s interest and protecting the capital
Society meets basic resource needs of its people without degrading or depleting the
natural capital
Needs differ by regions and cultures
Regional Disparity: differences between different regions, ex. Developed vs. developing
Large inequity or resources
Developed countries count for majority of resource use, waste and income, but account
for a small percentage of population
Resource: goods and services from the environment to meet our needs, our needs may differ
by perspectives
Types of Resources
Perpetual: renewed continuously
o ex. Sun, wind, tides
Renewable: replenished fairly rapidly
o Ex. Forests, animals, water, soil
Non-renewable: use exceeds replacement rate
o Ex. Fossil fuels
Tragedy of the Commons

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Depletion of renewable free access resources
``if I do not use this resource, someone else will. The little bit I use or pollute is not
enough to matter`
o Ex. Fisheries have been overfished and some fish have been completely wiped out
Impact Model
I=P + A + T
I is Environmental Impact
P is Population
A is Affluence
T is Technology
Cultural Changes
Hunting and Gathering Society
o 60,000 years ago
o Hunt wildlife
o Migrated with wildlife
o Nomadic and little environmental impact
o Small populations, lack of technology and low resource use
Ex. Dorset culture, Thule
Agricultural Revolution
o 10-12,000 years ago
o Shifting cultivation, “Slash and Burn”
o Domestication of wildlife and cultivation of plants
o Sustainable lifestyle, only impacted local environment
Ex. Used nutrients from the soil
Industrial Revolution
o Mid 1700’s
o Dependency on fossil fuels
o Dramatic increase in environmental impact
o Dependent on larger scale productions
o Lead to urban sprawls-more cities, factories
Information Revolution-Globalization
o 1950’s to present
o Ability to communicate with one another
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