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ES101 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Garrett Hardin, Hectare, First Nations

Environmental Studies
Course Code
Edmund Okoree
Study Guide

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Midterm Review ES101
Lesson 1: Introduction of themes, concepts and terms
-Everything that affects a living organism (any unique form of life)
-Biological science that studies the relationships between living organisms and their
Environmental Science
-An interdisciplinary study that uses information from the physical sciences and social
sciences to learn how the earth works, how we interact with the earth, and how to deal
with environment problems
Environmental Studies
-Science that studies the interaction between man and the environment, emphasizing
the links between different subjects related to this issue, including ecology, economics,
geography, meteorology, politics and sociology
-Is a social movement dedicated to protecting the Earth’s life support systems for us and
other species
Natural Capital
-We can think of the planets air, water, soil, wildlife, forest, rangeland, fishery, mineral,
and energy resources and processes of natural purification, recycling, and pest control
as natural resources or natural capital
Ecological Services
-Known as ecosystem services
-Regularly involved in the provisioning of clean drinking water and the decomposition of
-Refers to the ability of a system to survive for an extended period of time
Exponential Growth
-development at an increasingly rapid rate in proportion to the growing totalnumber or s
ize; a constant rate of growth applied to a continuously growingbase over a period of ti
Economic Growth
-an increase in the capacity of a country to provide people with good services
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Gross domestic Product
-The annual market value of all goods and services produced by all firms and
organizations, foreign and domestic, operating within a country
-The process of social, economic, and environmental global changes that leads to an
increasingly interconnected world
-Anything obtained from the environment to meet our needs and wants
Perpetual Resource
-Solar energy
Renewable and Nonrenewable Resource
Tragedy of the Commons
-1968, biologist Garrett Hardin called the degradation of renewable free-access
resources the tragedy of the commons
-One cause of environmental degradation of renewable resources is the overuse of
common-property or free-access resources
-The presence of substance at high enough levels in air, water, soil, or food to threaten
the health, survival, or activities of humans or other organisms
Point and Non-Point Source
-Point – pollutants are single indefinable sources
-Non-point – pollutants are dispersed and often difficult to identify
Pollution Prevention
-Reduces or eliminates the production of pollutants
Pollution Cleanup
-Involves cleaning up or diluting pollutants after they have been produced
-Describes the unsustainable addiction to overconsumption and materialism exhibited in
the lifestyles of affluent consumers in Canada, the U.S. and other developed countries.
Developed Countries
-1.3 billion people
-Canada, the US, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, and most European countries
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-Have a high per capita GDP
Developing Countries
-5.7 billion people
-Africa, Asia, and Latin America
-97% of the increase in the world’s population is expected to take place in developing
-1950- 2100 developing countries are expected to account for 97% of the 2.5 billion
people projected to be added to the world population between 2004 and 2050
Ecological Impact Model
-I = P x A x T
-I = environmental
-P = number of people
-A = affluence -> consumption per person
-T = technologies
Ecological Footprint
-A measure of how much of the Earth’s natural capital and biological income each of us
-The units are global hectares (gha)
-Each gha is a hectare of biologically productive land with average world productivity
Natural Capital
-The world’s stocks of natural assets which include geology, soil, air, water and all living
-Humans derive a wide range of services often call ecosystem services which make
human life possible
Lesson 2: Resource and Environmental Management History
Environmental History
Cultural Change
-12,000 years ago we saw the emergence of agricultural systems followed by the
industrial-medical period and then most recently the information and globalization
-Led to
oMore energy uses and technologies
oExpansion of human populations
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