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FS 101 Final Exam Notes.docx

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Film Studies
Katherine Spring

FS 101 Final Exam Notes Narration Narration  The process through which the syuzhet (plot) conveys or withholds information about the fibula (story) o The regulation of audience knowledge Range of Knowledge  Unrestricted (Omniscent) o Audience Knowledge > Character knowledge  Ex. Parallel Editing, Non-diegetic Voice-over o USED FOR SUSPENSE  Restricted o Audience knowledge = character knowledge o USED FOR SURPRISE Depth of Knowledge  Objective o Character’s external behaviour  (what they say and what they do)  Subjective o Character’s internal experience  Perceptual subjectivity = through devices of style, the plot gives us access to what characters see and hear  Ex. POV shot  Mental subjectivity = through devices of style, the plot gives us access to the “inner mind” or psyche of characters  Ex. Flashbacks to convey memories, dreams, fantasies) Early Cinema Cinema of Attractions  Random funny elements  Visual Spectacle  Illusion of Motion  No Classic  No character structure  Act of Looking  Repetition of something (on action) Early Cinema Focus  Focused on style, if there was a narrative, it comes second  CoA doesn’t follow classical editing, not driven o EX. MAGIC LANTERN, PHANTASMAGORIA, ZOETROPE Documentary Film  Factual information about something outside of time  Claims to provide trustworthy information Documentary and Truth  Gives us objective view of events, our assumption is film gives best objectivity (Faith in Photograph) o Film is trusted for count evidence + scientific inquiry Technology  1950’s – Lightweight camera’s o Direct cinema/Cinema verite  Voice of Authority or Voice of God  Talking Heads  Consider who financed film Art Cinema Art Cinema  Does not = Artistic o It is a mode of cinema with conventions o Form, production + consumption World Film Market  1914 = 90% films French  1928 = 85% Hollywood films  Europe makes cheaper, local films  Art Cinema as an alternative to Hollywood Conventions  Realism – more realistic than Hollywood, but changes overtime o A) Objective realism  How film captures things  Handheld camera  Direct Sound  Improvisation  Avaliable Light o B) Subjective Realism  Last defined goals  Loosening of cause + effect  Lack of narrative closure  Authorship o Obtrusive style  Jump cut – interruption of shots  Ambiguous sound +image relationship o Self-Reflexing  Calls attention to film mediums  Ambiguity o Key questions unresolved New Wave  Movement in 50’s – 60’s  Rejects conventions of CHC  Cleo = realtime Film Adaptation in the age of Intermediality Intermediality  The moving of a work from one medium into the medium of cinema Filmmakers & Intermediality  Filmmakers may not wish to recreates novel faithfully  Filmmakers may not be able to recreate novels faithfully o Ex. Catcher in The Rye  Filmmakers may want to “rewrite” novels  Filmmakers may want to connect novels to new contexts o Bride and Prejudice (2004) Adaptations  We have to acknowledge that adaptations might be invested in projects other than mere replication  We can use categories o Dudley Andrew  Borrowing, Intersecting, transforming Borrowing  “Here the artist employs, more or less extensively, the material idea, or form of an earlier, generally successful, text.”  “The analyst needs to probe the source of power in the original by examining the use made of it in adaptation.” Intersecting  A “refraction” of the original  The cinema works with the original format, highlighting elements we might otherwise not see Transforming  “The task of adaptation is the reproduction in cinema of something essential about an original text.”  The original work is transformed to fit the specific capabilities of cinema, so as to preserve it best Problems with this Approach  These approaches assume a relationship to one source  These approaches assume a relationship to a source clearly manifest in a narrative medium  These approaches do not readily account for the widespread appearance of characters and narratives across numerous media Intermediality  A useful alternative o The presence of different media within one another Intermediality in Theory  Every medium shapes its material in a unique way  Media-Engineering  Every medium can offer us something we can’t otherwise experience  Moving characters and narratives across media continually extends our experience of them  But, also continually explores what makes them relevant, interesting, and valuable Run Lola Run – Intermediality  Media Evoked? o Photography – photojournalist/realism o Painting – art history/Hitchcock/Hollywood cinema/art cinema o Music – The pleasures of repetition o Animation/Television – film among the other arts o Videogames – changing narrative structures/changing relationships to narrative The Puzzle Film The Blockbuster  Hollywood in the 1960’s o Huge $ losses  Ex. Fall of the Roman Empire (1964)  Budget: $20 million  Revenue: $5 million  Hollywood in the 1970’s o The blockbuster  Budgeted at highest level  Advertised to mass markets  Opened in hundreds of theaters  Launched over summer or Christmas  “a big, noisy, no-holds-barred spectacular offering” (Geoff King)  The Dark Knight vs. Transsiberian July 18, 2008 Budget (millions) Domestic Gross ($) Total Gross ($) The Dark Knight (opens 185 533.3 1001.9 in 4366 theaters) Transsiberian (opens in 15 2.2 5.8 154 theaters)  Plot and Spectacle o “(Blockbusters are) increasingly visceral, kinetic, and fast-paced, increasingly reliant on special effects, increasingly ‘fantastic’… and increasingly targeted at younger audiences.” – Thomas Schatz o “As one eye-popping scene of spectacle and destruction after another fills the screen, audiences are bored, unsatisfied… The audience is confronted with one violent spectacle after another.” – Wheeler Winston Dixon o “The plot advances through spect
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