Elemental Geosystems, 5e (Christopherson)
Chapter 10 Weathering, Karst Landscapes, and Mass Movement
1) The science that specifically studies the origin, evolution, form, and spatial distribution of landforms is
C) geomorpholo gy.
D) environment al chemistry.
2) All processes that cause the wearing away or rearrangement of landforms are included in the term
A) mass movement.
B) mass wasting.
3) The uplift of mountains is caused by
A) endogenic processes.
D) exogenic forces.
4) If the earth did not experience endogenic processes, the landscape would
A) be rugged and of great relief as a result of uplift in the absence of weathering and erosion.
B) consist of high mountains and hills with smooth, gentle slopes.
C) be of very low relief as a result of weathering and erosion in the absence of uplift.
5) Which of the following is not exogenic in nature?
D) batholith formation
E) mass wasting
6) Which of the following was not suggested by William Morris Davis in his model of landscape evolution?
A) Uplift is followed by erosion.
B) Streams erode rapidly both in the headward direction and downward due to the high relief of the
initially initial landscape.
C) Slope angles and divides become steeper through time.
D) All of these were suggested by Davis.
7) The form that a landscape exhibits results from a balance between
A) forces acting on the landscape.
B) endogenic and exogenic processes.
C) inputs and outputs of matter and energy.
D) all of the above
8) The dynamic equilibrium model refers to
A) a balancing tectonic uplift and rates of reduction by weathering and erosion in a given landscape.
B) a theory involving the cyclic or evolutionary development of a landscape.
C) a sequential development of landforms.
D) an important concept first stated by William Morris Davis.
9) In reality, a landscape behaves as
A) a closed system.
B) an open system.
C) an model changing in a sequence of stages that is the same everywhere on the earth.
D) a closed system in terms of energy and an open system in terms of matter.
10) If material is to move downslope, it must overcome the force of
B) the cohesion of particles to each other.
C) inertial resistance of the material.
D) all of these
11) Uplift of landscape creates ________ energy which is converted to ________ energy when materials begin to
the move downslope.
A) kinetic; potential
B) potential; kinetic
C) potential; chemical
D) kinetic; chemical
12) After a threshold is crossed, the landscape
A) remains unstable thereafter.
B) adjusts to a new equilibrium condition.
C) looks identical to the landscape that existed prior to the crossing of the threshold.
D) Any of these are equally likely to occur.
13) Conflicti forces work to establish an optimum incline on a slope. When any of these conditions are
ng disturbed or altered, the materials on the slope reach a
A) condition of static equilibrium.
B) condition of metastable equilibrium at the time of disturbance.
C) geomorphic cycle.
D) geomorphic threshold, or change point.
14) Moveme nt at the geomorphic threshold signals
A) a conversion of potential energy to kinetic energy.
B) a conversion of kinetic energy to chemical energy.
C) frictional resistance overcoming the degree of cohesion.
D) a lack of change.
15) The convex upper portion of a typical slope is called a
B) debris slope.
C) waxing slope.
D) free face.
16) On which part of a slope would rocks tend to fall at the highest speeds?
A) waning slope
B) waxing slope
C) debris slope
D) free face
17) The disintegration and dissolving of surface and subsurface rock is called
B) mass wasting.
C) landmass denudation.
18) Which of the following is false regarding joints?
A) Joints are small, localized fault planes along which movement occurs.
B) Joints enable more water to move through the ground.
C) Joints enhance the rate of weathering.
D) All of these are true.
19) In the n hemisphere mid-latitudes, slopes that face ________ have more trees on them because ________.
A) south; they receive more direct sunshine for photosynthesis
B) south; they receive more rainfall
C) north; they are more moist
D) north; they receive more direct sunshine
20) Chemic al weathering is greatest under conditions of
A) higher mean annual rainfall and temperatures.
B) lower mean annual rainfall and temperatures.
C) temperature s below freezing.
D) rainfall of less than 25 cm (10 in) per year.
21) In which following climates would the subsurface line of contact between weathered and unweathered
of the materials be at the greatest depth?
A) cold and wet
B) cold and dry
C) hot and wet
D) hot and dry
22) The rate at which rocks weather depends upon
A) the climate of an area.
B) the type of rock.
C) the amount of vegetation in an area.
D) all of the above
E) the climate of an area and the type of rock only.
23) Physical weathering is greatest under conditions of
A) lower temperatures and higher precipitation.
B) higher temperatures and precipitation, wetter, warmer climates.
C) a lack of moisture at the surface.
D) temperature s that reach below freezing.
24) Other rock itself, the most important chemical substance needed for the majority of weathering
than the processes is
D) carbon dioxide.
25) In most areas, the upper surface of bedrock is partially weathered to broken-up rock called
A) parent rock.
26) When rock is broken and disintegrated without dissolving, the process in operation is
A) physical weathering.
B) chemical weathering.
27) Which of the following is not a type of physical weathering process?
C) salt crystal growth
D) frost wedging
28) The fact that water expands as much as 9 percent of its volume as it freezes is the basis of
A) chemical weathering processes.
B) pressure- release jointing.
C) crystallizatio n.
D) frost wedging.
Answer: D 29) The dramatic domes and arch-shaped features found in granitic mountain masses result from
A) solution processes.
B) frost- wedging.
C) pressure- release jointing, exfoliation, and sheeting.
D) spheroidal weathering.
30) The sheets of rock that break off batholiths, such as Half Dome in Yosemite National Park, develop as
large a result of
B) mineral expansion.
C) salt crystal growth.
D) frost wedging.
31) Exfoliati on occurs because
A) water with minerals and increases their size, thereby causing surrounding minerals to pop out of
combines the rock matrix.
B) water freezes in joints and expands.
C) overlying rock is removed, thereby allowing the underlying rock mass to expand.
D) All of the above are possible causes of exfoliation.
32) Hydrati on involves
A) a chemical weathering process.
B) swelling and stress within a rock with the addition of water.
C) frost action.
D) the action of wind.
33) Which type of weathering is limited to arid environments?
B) frost wedging
D) salt crystal growth
E) carbonic acid solution
34) Which of the following is true of spheroidal weathering?
A) It is a physical weathering process.
B) It is a type of exfoliation associated with pressure release.
C) It attacks the corners and edges of rocks.
D) All of these are true.
35) Which of the following are the principal active agents involved in chemical weathering?
A) oxygen, silicon, aluminum
B) magnesium, water, limestone
C) water, oxygen, carbon dioxide
D) nitrogen, oxygen, argon
36) An example of chemical weathering is
B) the breakdown of rocks by freezing and thawing.
C) the wearing away of a stream bank by a river.
D) the limestone formations of Carlsbad Caverns in New Mexico.
37) Hydroly sis involves
A) no actual chemical change in minerals.
B) water being added to a mineral leading to swelling and stress in rock.
C) water chemically combining with minerals.
D) hydraulic action of water between rocks.
38) Which is true of hydrolysis?
A) It involves silicate minerals.
B) It involves the chemical reaction of water with a mineral.
C) It produces clays
D) All of the above are true.
E) Only A and B are true.
39) The red stains that occur on some rock surfaces are the result of ________, which is a form of ________
A) hydration; physical
B) hydration; chemical