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James Hamilton

GG101 – Physical Geography Labs (40%) Mid Term (10%) Feb 25 Final exam (50%) Late Papers will not be graded Jan 5, 10 The key focus is on Where are features distributed What are their characteristics How were they formed Development of Geography Developed from classical era mathematics, literature and cartography 19 and 20 century developments (quantitative revolution) Descriptions, classifications, relationships, identification, e.t.c A discipline with well developed body of theory coupled with a well developed body of theory coupled to techniques and approaches to solving real world problems Scope of Physical Geography Physical Geography primarily deals with Meteorology and climatology Hydrology Geomorphology Pedology and Biogeography (not covered in course) Jan 7, 10 Methods in physical Geography Empiricism Positivism(The Scientific Method) Geographic Themes Spatial Emphasis Location(where) and Place(Unique Characteristics) Ecological view of Human-Environment Relations Regional Analysis(similar place patterns) Movement and Processes (Changes over space and time) Systems Theory A system is a model or representation of a portion of the natural and human landscape Systems have boundaries ( superficially created by humans for analysis) Components Linkages Open system – has transfers of matter and/or energy with the surroundings Closed system – Isolated, no exchange of matter or energy Feedbacks – change in a system that causes another change (example Fig 1.1.1) Thresholds and Equilibrium – barriers of change (Fig 1.5) Steady State Equilibrium – remains relatively similar Dynamic Equilbrium Maps, Projections and Scale Shape of the Earth – Geodesy (science of measurement of the shape of the earth and its magnetic field) Earth is not a true Sphere Locating Objects on the Earth Great Circles – line traced through the centre of the surface of the earth(Fig 1-14) Small Circles – line traced on the surface of the earth not through the centre creating unequal portions (Fig 1.16) Meridians – lines that run north to south and from pole to pole (180 degrees of arc/ half a great circle) Spaced further apart at the equator (Prime Meridian – Greenwich England) Parallels – lines that run east to west parallel to or along the equator (small circles except the equator) Latitude and longitude (Location grid)Fig 1.11 Latitude - angular distance north or south from the equator (0-90 degrees north(+)and south(-)) Longitude – values range from 0-180 degrees from the primemeridian Standard Time zones are laid out in approximately 15 degree slices of longitude Jan 12, 10 UTC (Coordinated Universal Time) or Zulu refers to time at the prime meridian Maps - Cartography classes GG251 and GG351 Topographic map – primary map type for displaying relief Thematic maps – Scale – The ratio of the image on the map tto the real feature Written ex. 1:20,000 Bar or Graphic Map Projections(Fig 1.20) All projections produce some distortion Cylindrical, Planar, Conic, Important properties Shape(Conformal), Area(Equal Area), Azimuth(True Direction), Equidistance(True Distance) Types of projection Mercator Projection – Conformal and Azimuth properties preserved, distortion of size in northern latitude Remote Sensing and GIS Remote Sensing – Passive(Uses energy emitted from the surface) and Active(Passes energy through an object) ex. Camera without a flash is passive and a Camera with a flash is active Digital Images – Better then film images because they are easily manipulated Real colour and False colour images Jan 14, 10 Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Computer based data processing tool for gathering, manipulating, and analyzing geographic information Main elements Automated computer cartography Database management Spatial data Analysis Uses Automated mapping Analyzing distributions Examine spatial relationships Chapter 2 of Text Radiation, earth sun relations Energy – measure of the ability or capacity of a system to do work Energy cannot be created or destroyed but simply changes forms (Kinetic, thermal, potential, radiant) Radiant Energy – energy of electromagnetic waves i.e Radiation Solar Output Solar Wind – clouds of charged(ionized) gases emitted from the sun’s surface Electromagnetic Radiation – Energy that propagates through a vaccum, or a material medium in a form of advancing disturbance in electrical and magnetic fields (Moves at the speed of light) Modeled using waveforms Wavelength and Frequency (Fig 2.5) Wavelengths are measured in Microns Electromagnetic Spectrum (Fig 2.6) Short wavelengths (Gamma rays, X-Rays) Long Wavelengths (Radio waves and Microwaves) Radiation principles Objects with a temperature above absolute zero emit radiation (0 K = -273.15 degrees C The higher an objects temperature, the greater the amount of radiation emitted per unit of surface area The Higher an objects temperature, the shorter the wavelengths of maximum radiant emission(Wien’s Displacement Law) Objects that are good emitters of radiation are good absorbers of that same radiation A Blackbody is a perfect absorber and emitter Comparing the Earth and the Sun(Fig 2.7) Sun surface Temp 6000K Earth surface temp 273K Because of its temperature the sun emits more radiation at shorter wavelengths then the earth Jan 19,10 Comparing earth and Sun (continued...) Suns radiative output is dominated by ultraviolet, visible and near infrared (Shortwave radiation (K)) Earth Radiatlive Output is dominated by thermal infrared ( Long wave radiation(L)) The surface of the earth is a black body for longwave radiation however the atmosphere isn’t Net Radiation (Q*) – is the balance between incoming and outgoing radiation(Fog 2.8) Short wave (K down) – incoming shortwave radiation (Insolation) (K up) – outgoing shortwave radiation(reflected off the atmosphere) Longwave (L up) – outgoing long wave radiation (L down) – Incoming longwave terrestrial radiation Q* = incoming – outgoing (or) Q* = (K down + L down) – (K up + L up) Geographic Distribution of radiation(Fig 2.9) the incoming solar radiation is less per sq km at latitudes away from the equator Distribution of net radiation (Fig 2.11, 2.15) Earth Sun Relations(Read in text book) Atmospheric Properties (pg 64-86) Atmosphere – gaseous envelope that surrounds the Earth A mixture of gasses and suspended liquids and solids Non variable gasses Nitrogen 78.08% (stable) Oxygen 20.95% (reactive) Argon .93% (Inert) Neon .002% (Inert) Helium & Krypton .001% (inert) Variable gasses Water Vapour 0.1 – 4.0 Carbon Dioxide 0.039% (150 years ago .028) Ozone.006 Other .0015 Aerosols – Liquid and solids (not water and Ice) suspended in the atmosphere Vertical Structure – as elevation increases the Density decreases (Fig 3.3a) temperature and air pressure also decreases (Fig 3.3b) this is due to the decreased gravitational force at higher altitudes (the denser particles are attracted closer to the surface of the earth) Atmosphere is divided into layers according to composition, temperature and function (Fig 3.2) Temperature Troposphere – 0-17km (equatorial) and 0-10km (Polar) 80% of the mass of the atmosphere Turbulent, well mixed layer Rapid transfers of water Temperatures decrease with height (Fig 3.5) Jan 21, 10 Troposphere continued... Tropopause – boundary Stratosphere (second layer) 15-50km thick “Ozone layer” Temperature increases with height(fig 3.5) Limited circulation between troposphere and startoshpere Mesoshpere (third layer) 50-80km Temperature decreases with height Thermopause (fourth layer) Very low density Temperature increases with height Ionosphere and ozonosphere (fig 3.2) Ionosphere absorb gamma and x ray Ozonosphere absorb UV radiation Atmospheric Issues Acid Deposition(focus 3.2) – caused by sulphur dioxide producing industrial activities Ozone depletion (Focus 3.1) – CFC issue Air quality issues (Pg 78-86) Pollution/smog – Sulphurous industrial Photochemical smog – vehicle exhaust reacts on a hot sunny day to produce: Ozone, Peroxyacetyl Nitrates PAN and Nitric Acid Other sources – Of course industries, natural sources e.t.c Contributers: Hot sunny weather, calm and light winds temperature inversion layer (Fig 3.9) and Local topographic impression(not necessary) Industrial Smog – Industrial emissions especially from coal powering plants create sulphur dioxide and fine particulate that can penetrate deeply into the lungs 5,000 -10,000 estimated premature deaths due to these carcinogenic fine particles Energy Balance of the Earth (Fig 4.1) What goes in must go out – small wave radiation comes in and long wave radiation leaves Radiation and matter interactions Transmission Refraction Reflection Scattering (Diffuse reflection) Absorption Albedo (fig 4.5) – the proportion of incoming radiation ( k Down) that is reflected or scattered from the surface or atmosphere Albedo = (K up)/(K down) x 100 to get percentage of total energy balance Global distribution of Albedo (4.6) Heat – Energy in the process of being transferred from one object to another due to temperature difference between them Heat Transfers(fig 4.9) Conduction, Convection, Phase Change(Latent Heat) Latent Heat – heat required to activate a phase change from one state of matter to another with no temperature change EX. Evaporation States of Water (Fig 7.4) Energy requirements for phase change of water(7.6) Sensible Heat (heat you can sense) – temperature measurable with a thermometer Incoming Solar(Shortwave) radiation (fig 4.2) Outgoing Solar(shortwave) radiation (Fig 4.11) Outgoing terrestrial (Long wave) radiation (Fig 4.11) Energy Balance of the earth (fig 4.12) Jan 26, 10 Energy Balance of the Earth continued... Shortwave Budget 24% of (k down) is absorbed in atmosphere 31% is reflected or scattered back to space 45% reaches the surface and is absorbed 69% of total energy is absorbed in atmosphere or the surface The 69% that is absorbed must in turn be balanced by an equivalent amount of energy in the form of longwave radiation out of the earth Long wave Budget Heat transfers – latent heat, conduction and convection heat transfer into the atmosphere Thermal infrared – surface emits long wave thermal infrared directly into space As well the atmosphere directs back a large portion of that thermal infrared radiation back towards the earth What happens to shortwave radiation absorbed at the surface Converted to energy directed towards the atmosphere in the form of latent heat, sensible heat and emitted long wave radiation the atmosphere in turn emits long wave towards the surface the cycle continues(cycle is called the greenhouse effect) Is the earth atmosphere system actually in balance? No Temperature controls and distribution Daily Temperature Patterns(4.14) Why the lag between peak insolation and peak temperature? Regional and global temperature (chap 5) Principal temperature controls Specific Heat required to raise 1 gram of substance by 1 degree C at sea level atmospheric pressure Major Regional controls Latitude – dominant control Difference in insolation – equator receives more radiation(fig 5.4) Differential heating of Land and water (fig5.7) Thermal differences between land and water Characteristics of the surface (Transparent vs. Opaque) Evaporation Convection – energy is transferred in water through convection Thermal Storage Land Areas warm and cool much more rapidly than adjacent water bodies Continental Climate – areas not influenced by the moderating effect of large water bodies Maritime Climate – areas moderated by proximity to large water bodies Ex comparing Vancouver and Winnipeg Altitude – pressure density and temperature decrease with altitude Ocean Currents – proximity to ocean currents (warm and Cold) can influence the adjacent land areas Ex. Gulf Stream(fig 5.10) Cloud Cover – type, height, thickness and density of clouds influence temperature through controls on albedo effect on shortwave radiation and the greenhouse effect on longwave radiation Jan 28,10 Temperature Distribution and Range July (Fig 5.16) January (Fig5.13) Temperature Range difference between the warmest and coolest months(Fig 5.18) Air pressure and global winds (Chapter 6) Latitudinal difference of general wind patterns (examples at Polar regions tend to be west to east while equatorial regions tend to move east to west Winds driven by differences in air pressure Measurements of Air Pressure Barometers (fig 6.2) Units and Ranges (fig 6.3) Wind is produced because of differences in air pressure between two locations Driving forces involved Pressure Gradient Force - PGF (fig 6.7) Drives air from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure Speed of wind is faster when isobars are closer so faster gradient of air pressure faster winds High pressure moves down then up to a low pressure area (Fig 6.8a) Coriolis Force- CF (effect) This effect is the apparent deflection of wind from a straight path due to the rotation of the earth, force is maximum at the poles and minimum at the equator Force is proportional to wind speed and acts at 90 degrees to the direction of the wind Coriolis deflects wind to the right in the northern hemisphere and to the left in the southern hemisphere (fig 6.9) PGF and CF produce Geostrophic wind (Fig 6.8b & 6.15) Friction Force – friction acts on wind when the air approaches the surface slowing the wind speed and reducing the magnitude of the coriolis force What is the effect of friction on Geostrophic Wind?
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