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Part II: Weather and Climate This includes section 2_1 to 1_4. I have typed out everything that Quinton has said and even added a little extra for explanation. It includes practice quiz questions at bottom. If something is highlighted, than that means it

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William Bill Quinton

Part II Weather and Climate Part 21 3 Water vapour has density of 1 kgm3Liquid is 1000 kgm 3 Solid is 900 kgm The atmosphere is only 003 of fresh surface waterSaturation vapour pressure curve As the pocket of air gets warmer you can hold more vapour as it gets colder it holds less water vapour How to cool that parcel of air 205 Cool parcel of air until it gets to dew point temperature Or can add almost 20 mb of pressure Dew point temperature is the point on a thermometer It is the red line Dew point temp means pocket of air has reached capacity of water vapour saturationRelative Humidity Relative humidity changes but actual doesntCondensation on a cooled surface Water vapour on side of glass is cooling down so it cools to dew point temp relative humidity is 100With a hot cup you would be heating the air so you would make air dryer on surface Raise temperature and relative humidity goes down Lower temp and relative humidity increasesDaily Humidity Patterns In colder months relative humidity is higherS is the fuel that drives all processes down As you go down atmosphere there is more pressure on parcel of air so relative humidity increases This is because of the pushing down of molecules above As parcel of air rises through the atmosphere its pressure is going down and temperature is going down and parcel of air is getting bigger As parcel of air goes down it expands and relative pressure goes up and it heats up These parcels of air are heating and cooling adiabatically If parcel of air is below dew point than it will increase 10Ckm when going down3 Things happen as parcel of air rising expandingless dense cooling Rh goes up All happens in turn When parcel is going down compressing heating Rh goes downDry air means air is not saturated Less than 100 relative humidity than it is not saturatedEnvironmental lapse rate is variable and depends on temperature surrounded parcel of air Adiabatic lapse rate tells temperature of parcel of air rising Goes from dry adiabatic lapse rate to saturated adiabatic lapse rate Builds up condensation once it hits dew point and goes up moist adiabatic lapse rate Becomes saturated at dew pointCool more slowly past dew point From 10Ckm to 3ckmThis caused because energy is released past dew point Latent heat that released offsets the rate of cooling At some point you will run out of moisture and latent heat will stopIf rate of lifting is faster than that means its cooling more rapidly and giving off heat more rapidly Lower number means a more rapid rise 3Ckm is faster than 6Ckm Ranges from 3 to 6 Heater that turns off at condensation pointIf environmental lapse rate is to the left than that means dry adiabatic lapse rate is warmer and parcel of air is stable Once no more condensation than that means no more heat Air parcel begins to descend and follows the dry adiabatic lapse rate When raising you follow dry and saturated lapse rate When descending only follows dry adiabatic lapse rateOrographic Lifting Does the same thing when an air parcel is traveling up a mountain Rises expands cools Rh goes up Same thing but different process Topographically different Dew point temp is what you see on a thermometer When going up a mountain the saturated adiabatic lapse rate is almost parallel to the dry adiabatic lapse rate at the top Releases more heat at bottom of SAR3 types of clouds Cirro Alto Nimbo
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