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Human Geography Review

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Sean Doherty

Chapter 1 – Geography Matters  Geography matters because specific places provide the settings for people’s daily lives. It is in these settings that important events happen, and it is from them that significant changes spread and diffuse  Places and regions are highly interdependent, each filling specialized roles in complex and ever- changing networks of interaction and change  Some of the most important aspects of the interdependence between geographical scales are provided by the relationships between the global and the local  Human geography provides ways of understanding places, regions, and spatial relationships as the products of a series of interrelated forces that stem from nature, culture, and individual human action  The first law of geography is that “everything is related to everything else, but near things are more related than are distant things”  Distance is one aspect of this law, but connectivity is also important, because contact and interaction are dependent on channels of communication and transportation Why Places Matter  Human Geography – the study of spatial organization of human activity and of people’s relationships with their environments  People everywhere struggle to understand a world that is increasingly characterized by instant global communications, unfamiliar international relationships, unexpected local changes, and growing evidence of environmental degradation  Places provide the settings for people’s daily lives; in these settings, people learn who and what they are and how they should think and behave  People from different cultures will always have very different attitudes to spirituality, human relationships, religion, and other factors that contribute to making us who we are The Influence and Meaning of Places  Places contribute to people’s collective memory & become powerful emotional & cultural symbols  Ordinary places can have special meanings: a childhood neighbourhood, university campus (etc)  Places are socially constructed – given different meanings by different groups for different purposes  Places are also sites of innovation and change, of resistance and conflict  Places are settings for social interaction that, among other things, - Structure the daily routines of people’s economic and social life - Provide both opportunities and constraints in terms of people’s long-term and social well- being - Provide a context in which every day, commonsense knowledge and experience are gathered - Provide a setting for processes of socialization - Provide an arena for contesting social norms The Interdependence of Places  Most places are interdependent, each filling specialized roles in complex and ever-changing geographies (Think about Canadian companies relying on food, cheap labour from elsewhere) The Interdependence of Geographical Scales  Some of the most important aspects of the interdependence between geographical scales are provided by the relationships between the global and the local scales  The study of human geography shows not only how global trends influence local outcomes but also how events in particular localities can come to influence patterns and trends elsewhere Interdependence as a Two-Way Process  As people live and work in places, they gradually impose themselves on their environment, modifying and adjusting it to suit their needs and express their values.  At the same time, people gradually accommodate both to their physical environment and to the people around them  There is thus a continuous two-way process in which people create and modify places while being influenced by the settings in which they live and work Why Geography Matters  Geography matters because, quite simply, it enable s us to understand our world and Canada’s relationship with it  With such an understanding, it is possible not only to appreciate the diversity and variety of the world’s peoples and places but also to be aware of their relationships to one another and to make positive contributions to local, national, and global development 1.1Geography Matters – The Development of Geographic Thought  The Greek showed that places embody fundamental relationships between people and the natural environment and that geography provides the best way of addressing the interdependencies among places and between people and nature  The Greeks were almost certainly the first to appreciate the practical importance and utility of geographic knowledge particularly in politics, business and trade  As Greek civilization developed, descriptive geographical writing came to be an essential tool for recording information about sea and land routes and for preparing colonists and merchants for the challenges and opportunities they would encounter in faraway places  Chinese maps of the world from the same period were more accurate than those of European cartographers because they were based on information brought back by imperial China’s admirals, who are widely believed to have successfully navigated  Geographical knowledge during the Middle Ages throughout Western Europe was dictated by the views of the church, which taught that the world embodied Christian theology (P.15)  Christopher Columbus expected that he would reach China by sailing directly west across the Atlantic from Spain – a trip he believed lay easily within the reach of small ships at his disposal because of his understanding of the ancient Greek’s calculations of the Earth’s circumference  Immanuel Kant – argued that all knowledge could be divided into that which occurred in the time (chronological) or space (the chorological). Was an influential philosopher, and his belief in the intellectual importance of geography marked an important step in establishing it as a formal discipline  Baron Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859) – his life’s work emphasized the mutual interdependence between the people, flora, and fauna with their physical setting (he called it “the chain of connection”). In this way, he showed how people have adapted to their environment and how their behaviours also affect the environment that surrounds them – he emphasized the mutual causality that exists among species and their environment  Carl Sauer (1925) – argued that landscapes should provide the focus for the scientific study of geography because they reflect the outcome, over time, of the interdependence of physical and human factors in the creation of distinctive places and regions - Stressed that although everything in a particular landscape is interrelated, the physical elements do not necessarily determine the nature of the human elements  Positivism – scientific research method; using the direct measurements of observable phenomena and established methods to verify hypotheses and construct universal laws and theories  Postmodernity – celebrates difference and rejects positivism’s universal or general principles Geography & Exploration  Cartography – the body of practical and theoretical knowledge about making distinctive visual representations of Earth’s surface in the form of maps  Explorations enabled European navigators to develop an invaluable body of knowledge about ocean currents, wind patterns, coastlines, peoples and resource  Geographical knowledge acquired during the Age of Discovery was crucial to the expansion of European political and economic power in the 16 century  In societies that were becoming more and more commercially oriented and profit conscious, geographical knowledge became a valuable commodity in itself  Information about regions and places was a first step to control and influence, and this, in turn, was an important step to wealth and power  At the same time, every region began to be opened up to the influence of other regions as a result of the economic and political competition that was unleashed by geographical discovery  Map Projection – a systematic rendering on a flat surface of the geographic coordinates of the features found on Earth’s surface  Geography mattered but mainly as an instrument of colonialism  The result was that geography began to develop a disciplinary tradition that was strongly influenced by: - Ethnocentrism – the attitude that a person’s own race and culture are superior to those of others - Imperialism – the extension of the power of a nation through direct or indirect control of the economic and political life of other territories - Masculinism – the assumption that the world is, and should be, shaped mainly by men for men  These trends became more and more explicit as European dominance increased  Environmental determinism – a doctrine holding that human activities are controlled by the environment - Rests on the belief that the physical attributes of geographical settings are the root not only of people’s physical differences (skin colour, stature, and facial features, for example) but also of differences from place to place in people’s economic vitality, cultural activities and social structure Interdependence in a Globalizing World  Globalization – is a process and a condition that involves the increasing interconnectedness of different parts of the world through common processes of economic, environmental, political and cultural change Geography in a Globalizing World  New telecommunication technologies, new corporate strategies, and new institutional framework have all combined to create a dynamic new framework for real-world geographers  New information technologies have helped create a frenetic international financial system, while transnational corporations are now able to transfer their production activities from one part of the world to another in response to changing market conditions  Location flexibility means that a high degree of functional integration now exists between economic activities that are increasingly dispersed so that products, markets and organizations are both spread and linked across the globe  Sheer scale and capacity of the world economy means that humans are now capable of altering the environment at the global scale GEOGRAPHY IN CANADA Pre-Confederation  Samuel de Champlain (1570 – 1635) – illustrated his accounts of travels along the St. Lawrence River with his own paintings and maps - An astrolabe (a device used to measure latitude) he lost in the Ottawa Valley  2008 – Canadian government announced new efforts to locate Franklin’s two ships in the High Arctic – an opportunity to stake Canada’s claim to the sovereignty over this area at a time when rising oil prices and global warming have turned the attention of other nations toward the Northwest Passage 1870s to 1930s: An Immense Task  Among the Canadian writers of travel and adventure books in this period were some who had great insights regarding the geographical development of Canada. Themes they discussed: - Canada’s relations with the US - The regional character of Canada - The European settlement of Canada - French-speaking Canada’s relations with English speaking Canada Other themes added: - The role of the St. Lawrence and the lower Great Lakes as an organizing axis of Canadian development - Importance of the ecumene, or total amount of habitable land, as a limit on agricultural settlement o Ecumene – the total habitable area of a country. Since it depends on the prevailing technology, the available ecumene varies over time. It is an important concept in Canada’s case, since the ecumene is so much less than the country’s total area - The role of the frontier as a catalyst for development Geographers at Work  Geodemographic research - investigation using census data and commercial data (such as sales data and property records) about the populations of small districts to create profiles of those populations for market research  Geographic information system (GIS) – an organized collection of computer hardware, software, and geographical data that is designed to capture, store, update, manipulate, and display spatially referenced information 1.2Geography Matters – Geographic Information Systems (GIS)  The software in GIS incorporates programs to store and access spatial data, to manipulate those data, and to draw maps  Most important aspect: from an analytical perspective – is that they allow data from several different sources on different topics and at different scales to be merged (allows analysts to emphasize the spatial relationships among the objects being mapped)  GIS technology allows the interpretation of the satellite data to identify different types of land use STUDYING HUMAN GEOGRAPHY  Physical Geography – deals with Earth’s natural processes and their outcomes (ex. climate, weather patterns, landforms, soil formation, and plant and animal ecology  Human Geography – deals with the spatial organization of human activity and with people’s relationships with their environment (involves looking at natural physical environments insofar as they influence, and are influenced by, human activity); examples: agricultural production and food security, population change, the ecology of human diseases, resource management, environmental pollution, regional planning, and the symbolism of places and landscapes  Regional Geography - Combines elements of both physical and human geography - Regional Geography – the study of the ways in which unique combinations of environmental and human factors produce territories with distinctive landscapes and cultural attributes  Region - a larger-sized territory that encompasses many places, all or most of which share similar attributes in comparison with the attributes of places elsewhere  Distinctive about the study of human geography – the contribution of human geography is to reveal, in relation to a wide spectrum of natural, social, economic, political, and cultural phenomena, how and why geographic relations are important Basic Tools  Field work (surveying, asking questions, using scientific experiments to record things), laboratory experiments, and archival searches are all used by human geographers to gather information about geographical relationships  Remote Sensing - the collection of information about parts of Earth’s surface by means of aerial photography or satellite imagery designed to record data on visible, infrared, and microwave sensor systems  Model – often described as a theory or concept, a model is best thought of “a simplification of reality” designed to help generalize our understanding of a particular process or set of phenomena; it can take the form of a diagram, equation, or simple verbal statement (such as a law), and may be used as a summary of past and present behaviour or to predict future events 1.3Geography Matters – Understanding Maps  Topographic Maps - Maps that are designed to represent the form of Earth’s surface and to show permanent (or at least long-standing) features, such as buildings, highways, field boundaries, and political boundaries  The usual device for representing the form of Earth’s surface is the contour - Contour – a line that connects points of equal vertical distance above or below a zero data point, usually sea level  Thematic Maps – Maps that are designed to represent the spatial dimensions of particular conditions, processes, or events - These can be based on any one of a # of devices that allow cartographers or mapmakers to portray spatial variations or spatial relationships - Two examples of proportional symbols in thematic maps: Flow lines & proportional circles - Isoline – a line (similar to a contour) that connects places of equal data value (for example: air pollution) - Isopleth Maps – maps based on isolines  Choropleth Map – in which tonal shadings are graduated to reflect area variations in numbers, frequencies, or densities - Use data that relate to the specific areas, or spatial units of measurement, that compose the map and from which the relevant information has been collected or recorded  Areal Units – spatial units of measurement, such as a city block or province, used for recording statistics  Thematic maps can be based on located charts – in which graphs or charts are located by place and region Map Scales:  Map Scale – ratio between linear distance on a map and linear distance on Earth’s surface Map Projections:  A map projection is a systematic rendering on a flat surface of the geographical coordinates of the features found on the Earth’s surface  Since Earth is not a perfect sphere and its surface is curved, it is impossible to represent on a flat plane, sheet of paper, or monitor screen without some distortion  Conformal Projection – map projections on which compass bearings are rendered accurately  Mercator Projection – used in navigation, distorts area more and more towards the poles – so that the poles cannot be shown as single points  Equal-area (equivalent) projections – map projections that portray areas on Earth’s surface in their true proportions (used to compare and contrast distributions on Earth’s surface, the relative area of different types of land use for example)  Cartogram - one particular kind of map projection that is sometimes used in small-scale thematic maps; in this kind of projection, space is transformed according to statistical factors, with the largest mapping units representing the greatest statistical values  Visualization – a computer-assisted representation of spatial data, often involving three- dimensional images and innovative perspectives, that reveals spatial patterns and relationships more effectively Fundamental Concepts of Geography  8 important concepts geographers have developed in their approach to the world 1) Region – the concept of the region is used by geographers to apply to larger-sized territories that encompass many places, all or most of which share similar attributes in comparison with the attributes of places elsewhere - The concept of “region” is used to distinguish one area from another - Regions are distinguished on the basis of specific characteristics, or attributes (regions need to be as homogeneous as possible with respect to the factors used to define them) - Regions minimize the variation of the chosen attribute within their boundaries and maximize the variation of that attribute between themselves and their neighbouring regions - Regions can be defined on the basis of any attribute or combination of attributes (temperature, precipitation, regional accents and folk architecture) - Three types of regions: a) Formal Region – is on that is uniform in terms of specific criteria b) Functional Region – is an area that literally functions as a unit, economically or administratively, and is usually organized by transport routes focused on a dominant city c) Vernacular Region – is the local region as identified by the region’s own inhabitants 2) Location - Location can be used also as an absolute concept, whereby locations are fixed mathematically through coordinates of latitude and longitude - Latitude – the angular distance of a point on Earth’s surface, measure north or south from the equator, which is 0 degrees (run parallel to the equator – sometimes referred to as parallels) - Longitude – the angular distance of a point on Earth’s surface, measured east or west from the prime meridian (the line that passes through both poles and through Greenwich, England, and has the value of 0 degrees) - Global Positioning System (GPS) - a system of satellites that orbit Earth on precisely predictable paths, broadcasting highly accurate time and locational information (with this, it is easy to determine the longitude and latitude of any given point) - Location can be relative – fixed in terms of their site or situation Site – the physical attributes of a location – its terrain, soil, vegetation, and water sources, for example Situation – refers to the location of a place relative to other places and human activities: its accessibility to routes, for example, or nearness to population centres - Location has a cognitive dimension, in that people have cognitive images of places and regions, compiled from their own knowledge, experience, and impressions Cognitive Images (Mental Maps) – psychological representations of locations that are created from people’s individual ideas and impressions of these locations 3) Distance – distance is also useful as an absolute physical measure, whose units we may count in kilometres or miles, and as a relative measure, expressed in terms of time, effort or cost - The distance (in social space) between social group, known as social distance, is a very useful measure and has, for example, been used in explanations of how social areas within cities develop (social interactions) - Cognitive Distance – the distance that people perceive to exist in a given situation (this is based on people’s personal judgements about the degree of spatial separation between two points) - Importance of distance as a fundamental factor in determining real-world relationships is a central theme in geography; first law of geography – “Everything is related to everything else. But near things are more related than distant things” - Friction of Distance –the deterrent or inhibiting effect of distance on human activity (it’s a reflection of the time and cost of overcoming distance) - Distance-decay Function – describes the rate at which a particular activity or phenomenon diminishes with increasing distance (the measure of almost any aspect of human behaviour diminishes with increasing distance); reflect people’s behavioural response to opportunities and constraints in time and space – as such – they are a reflection of the utility of particular locations to people - Utility – the usefulness of a specific place or location to a particular person or group - Maximizing the net utility of location means that a great deal of human activity; “nearness principle” states that people will seek to a) Maximize the overall utility of places at minimum effort b) Maximize connections among places at minimum cost c) Located related activities as close together as possible 4) Space – can be measured in absolute, relative and cognitive terms - Topological Space – the connections between, or connectivity of, particular points in space (is not measured in terms of conventional measures of distance but rather by the nature and degree of connectivity between two locations) - Socioeconomic space - described in terms of sites and situations, routes, regions, and distribution patterns (in these terms, spatial relationships have to be fixed through measures of time, cost, profit, and production, as well as through physical distance) - Experiential or cultural space – space of groups of people with common ties, and it is described through the places, territories, and settings whose attributes carry special meaning for these particular groups of people - Cognitive Space – space defined and measured in terms of the nature and degree of people’s values, feelings, beliefs, and perceptions about locations, districts, and regions (can be described in terms of behavioural space – landmarks, paths, environments and spatial layouts) - Henri Lefebvre – the 3 main processes societies use to constantly produce space i) Spatial Practice – these are the spatial locations in which our social and economic activities are found and the ways in which they are linked to create space ii) Representation of Space – these are the ways in which power is, often invisibly, “inscribed” in space (for example, through municipal zoning regulations, which enforce one group’s values across a multiethnic city) iii) Representational space/spaces of representation – these are the functions of spatial allusions in the common symbols used in any culture’s literature or art (example: words such as garden, valley or mouth carry with them a whole set of cultural and social attitudes that mean far more than simply descriptions of physical phenomenon) 5) Place - Place – a concept with two levels of meaning i) An objective location that has both uniqueness and interdependence with other places ii) A subjective social and cultural construct – somewhere that has personal meaning for individuals or groups - Place Making – any activity, deliberate or unintentional, that enables space to develop meaning 6) Accessibility - Accessibility – the opportunity for contact or interaction from a given point or location in relation to other locations (distance is one aspect of accessibility) - Important aspect of accessibility –Connectivity – because contact and interaction are dependent on channels of communication and transportation: streets, highways, telephone lines, and wave bands, for example (effective accessibility is a function of networks of communication and transportation) - Accessibility is often a function of economic, cultural, and social factors (relative concepts and measures of distance are often important as absolute distance) 7) Spatial Interaction - Interdependence between places and regions can be sustained only through movement and flows - Four basic concepts: i) Complementarity o For any kind of spatial interaction to occur between two places there must be a demand in one place and a supply that matches, or compliments it o 1 important factor: variation in physical environments and resource endowments from place to place (example: flow of Canadian visitors to Cuba during the winter is the result of climatic complementarity nd o 2 factor: international division of labour that derives from the evolution of the world’s economic systems. o 3 factor: operation of principles of specialization and economies of scale Economies of Scale – are cost advantages to manufacturers that accrue from high- volume production, since the average cost of production falls with increasing output ii) Transferability o Depends on the frictional or deterrent effects of distance o Transferability is a function of two things: the costs of moving a particular item, measured in real money or time, and the ability of the item to bear these costs iii) Intervening Opportunities o Important in determining the volume and pattern of movements and flows o Intervening opportunities are simply alternative origins or destinations. Such opportunities are not necessarily situated directly between two points, or even along a route between them. Thus, for Scottish families considering a Mediterranean vacation in Greece, resorts in Spain, southern France, and Italy are all intervening opportunities because they can be reached more quickly and more cheaply than resorts in Greece. o The size and relative importance of alternative destinations are also important aspects of the concept of intervening opportunity (for Scottish families, Spanish resorts probably offer the greatest intervening opportunity because they contain the largest aggregate number of hotel rooms and vacation apartments. iv) Spatial diffusion o Spatial diffusion – the way that things spread through space and over time o Examples: Disease outbreaks, technological innovations, political movements, and new musical fads originate in specific places and subsequently spread to other places and regions o Diffusion seldom occurs in an apparently random way, jumping unpredictably all over the map  Rather, it occurs as a function of statistical probability, which is often based on fundamental geographical principles of distance and movement  The diffusion of a contagious disease, for example, is a function of the probability of a physical contact, modified by variations in individual resistance to the disease o The result is typically a “wave” of diffusion that describes an S-curve, with a slow buildup, rapid spread, and a final levelling off (Figure 1.22 – P. 44) o It is possible to recognize several different spatial tendencies in patterns of diffusion  In expansion diffusion (also called contagious diffusion – Figure 1.23a), a phenomenon spreads due to the proximity of carriers, or agents of change, who are fixed in their location  Example: Spread of a contagious disease, such as cholera, across a city; the spread of an innovative agricultural practice, such as the use of hybrid seed stock, across a rural area  Relocation diffusion – a phenomenon is spread as an initial carrier or group of carriers moves from one location to another, taking the phenomenon with it as it travels or migrates (Figure 1.23b)  Example: The movement of spices from Asia to Europe  Hierarchical diffusion (cascade diffusion) – a phenomenon can be diffused from one location to another without necessarily spreading to places in between (Figure 1.23c)  This is because such phenomena first only spread between centres of equal rank in an urban hierarchy (between major world cities, for example), before spreading down the urban hierarchy (from city to town to village for example).  There are two important consequences of hierarchical diffusion: 1. Diffusion in hierarchical spaces results in phenomena spreading much more quickly around the world (and is one of the many features of a globalizing world), than they would if they had to rely on expansion diffusion alone 2. Phenomena spread last to places at the bottom of the urban hierarchy (small villages, for example) – a consequence that means that while hierarchical diffusion can be faster than expansion diffusion, it is not always as thorough in reaching everywhere quickly This is because very small villages located close to large centres are going to receive news of innovation, for example, much later than more distant but larger centres, which (while geographically future from the origin of innovation) are much closer in terms of hierarchical space Example: The spread of a fashion trend from large metropolitan areas to smaller cities and town v) Scale  Scale - the general concept that there are various scales of analysis (local, regional, national, global), that they are linked, and that processes operating at one scale can have significance at other scales  "Think global, act local"  Example: The diffusion of the HIV-1 virus. At a global scale, a hierarchical process of diffusion dominates, but at a very local scale, the expansion (or "contagious" diffusion process will be more important Conclusion  Although modern ideas about the study of human geography developed from intellectual roots going back to the classical scholarship of ancient Greece, as the world itself has changed, our ways of thinking about it have also changed  The contribution of human geography is to reveal, in relation to economic, social, cultural, and political phenomena, how and why geographical relationships matter in terms of cause and effect  Geography matters because it is in specific places that people learn who and what they are and how they should think and behave  Places are a strong influence, for better or worse, on people's physical well-being, their opportunities, and their lifestyle choices  Places contribute to people's collective memory and become powerful emotional and cultural symbols  Places are the sites of innovatio0n and change. of resistance and conflict  To investigate specific places, however, we must be able to frame our studies of them within the context of the entire globe. This is important for two reasons: a. The world consists of a complex mosaic of places and regions that are interrelated and interdependent in many ways b. Place-making forces - especially economic, cultural, and political forces that influence the distribution of human activities and the character of places - are increasingly operating at global and international scales  The interdependence of places and regions means that individual places are tied into wider processes of change that are reflected in broader geographical patterns  This global perspective leads to the following principles: - Each place, each region, is largely the product of forces that are both local and global in origin - Ultimately, each place and region are linked to many other places and regions through these same forces - The individual character of places and regions cannot be accounted for by general processes alone. Some local outcomes are the product of unusual circumstances or special local factors Chapter 2 - The Changing Global Context  Places and regions are part of a "world-system" that has been created as a result of processes of private economic competition and political competition among states  Today, the world-system is highly structured and is characterized by three tiers: core regions, semiperipheral regions, and peripheral regions  The world-system is made up of a nested set of cores and peripheries  Canada is simultaneously part of the global core and semiperiphery  The evolution of the modern world-system has exhibited distinctive stages, each of which has left its legacy in different ways in particular places, depending on their changing role within the world-system  At the end of the eighteenth century, the new technologies of the Industrial Revolution brought about the emergence of a global economic system that reached into almost every part of the world and into virtually every aspect of people's lives  The growth and internal colonization of the core regions could take place only with the foodstuffs, raw materials, and markets provided by the colonization of the periphery  Within each of the world's major regions, successive technological innovations have transformed regional geographies  Globalization has intensified the differences between the core and the periphery and has contributed to the emergence of a digital divide and an increasing division between a fast world (about 15 % of the world's population) and a slow world (about 85 % of the world's population) with contrasting lifestyles and levels of living The Changing World  Ability to understand places and regions as components of constantly changing global system - best way to understand these changes and their consequences for different places and regions is to think of the world as an evolving, competitive, political-economic system called the world system  World System - An interdependent system of countries linked by economic and political competition o Hyphenation of the term world-system - coined by historian Immanuel Wallerstein in the 1970s to emphasize the interdependence of places and regions around the world o The modern world-system had its origins in parts of fifteenth century Europe, when exploration beyond European shores began to be seen as an important way of opening up new opportunities for trade and economic expansion o By the sixteenth century, new techniques of shipbuilding and navigation had begun to bind more and more places and regions together through trade and political competition o The decline of feudalism and its replacement by merchant capitalism also profoundly changed Europe's economy during this period  Result: Increasingly more peoples around the world became exposed to another's technologies and ideas  Some societies were incorporated into the new, European-based international economic system faster than others; some resisted incorporation; and some sought alternative systems of economic and political organization  Example: Australia and New Zealand - were not discovered by the Europeans until the late 18th century - such regions were an external arena to the world system  External Arena - regions of the world not yet absorbed into the modern world- system  There have been many instances of resistance and adaptation, with some countries (Tanzania) attempting to become self-sufficient and others (China & Cuba) seeking to opt out of the system altogether to pursue a different path to development - that of communism  Overall result: highly structured relationship between places and regions has emerged - relationship is organized around three tiers: core, semiperipheral, and peripheral regions  These divisions have been created through a combination of processes of private economic competition and competition among states  States - independent political boundaries that are internationally recognized by other political units  Core Regions - of the world system are those regions that dominate trade, control the most advanced technologies and have high levels of productivity within diversified economies (first regions: trading hubs of Holland and England) - They enjoy high per capita incomes - Success of these regions is dependent on their dominance and exploitation of other regions - Colonialism - the establishment and maintenance of political and legal domination by a state over a separate and alien society  Regions that have remained economically and politically unsuccessful throughout this process of incorporation into the world-system are peripheral Peripheral regions - characterized by dependent and disadvantageous trading relationships, obsolete technologies, and undeveloped or narrowly specialized economies with low levels of productivity  Semiperipheral Regions - in between core regions and peripheral regions Regions that are able to exploit peripheral regions but are themselves exploited and dominated by core regions - Consist most of countries that were peripheral - This semipheral regions category underlines the fact that neither peripheral status nor core status is necessarily permanent - Canada, the US and Japan all achieved core status after having been peripheral  A simplified model of the world-system - the arrows indicate the various economic, political, military, and cultural means used by cores to dominate their peripheries.  Core regions are not uniform or homogeneous areas - the same types of economic, political, social and cultural processes that have created and that sustain core regions are at a global level also operate at regional and local scales Summary of Important features:  The world=system model states that the world can be divided into a series of cores, semiperipheries and peripheries  In dividing the world in this way, we are using a relative concept of space, based on socioeconomic measure of distance  The global core maintains its dominance through the exercise of the economic, political, military, and cultural forces at its disposal  The core also maintains its dominance through environmental and ecological means (Ex. Jared Diamond's study Guns, Germs, & Steel - argued that the initial centres of domestication secured a lasting advantage; Alfred Crosby has shown how the introduction of European crops overseas itself become an instrument of imperialism; and, in future, genetic modification may enable Western farmers to produce crops that could once only be grown in the tropics)  The global periphery is maintained in a dependent position by the global core (Because of this - the core actively "undevelops" the periphery)  The global core and periphery have changed their locations overtime  The world-system is made up of a nested series of cores and peripheries. In this, we see another of the concepts - the concept of scale. Local developments are transmitted to the regional and global scale. In this way, local developments are transmitted to the regional and global levels, and the forces of globalization manifest themselves at a local scale GEOGRAPHIC EXPANSION, INTEGRATION, & CHANGE Mini-systems  Mini-system - a society with a single cultural base and a reciprocal social economy  Each individual specializes in particular tasks (tending animals, cooking, or making pottery), freely giving any excess product to others, who reciprocate by giving up the surplus product of their own specialization  The transition to food-producing mini-systems had several important implications for the long- term evolution of the world`s geographies 1) It allowed much higher population densities and encouraged the proliferation (creation) of settled villages 2) It brought about a change in social organization, from loose communal systems to systems that were more highly organized on the basis of kinship (Kin groups provided a natural way of assigning rights over land and resources and of organizing patterns of land use) 3) It allowed some specialization in non-agricultural crafts, such as pottery, woven textiles, jewellery, and weaponry 4) Specialization lead to the beginnings of barter and trade between communities, sometimes over substantial distances  Karl Polanyi - first scholar to describe the broad changes over time in the social economic bases of mini-systems - later he endeavoured to show how ancient economies may have begun and evolved overtime - recent research on ancient societies suggest that it is impossible for us to place ourselves into the minds of early peoples and make assumptions about how they interpreted their lives  Most mini-systems vanished a long time ago - some remnants of them have survived - Example: bush people of Kalahari, the hill tribes of Papua New Guinea, and the tribes of the Amazon Rainforest - they contribute powerfully to regional differentiation and sense of place in a few enclaves around the world - Contribution to human geography: they provide a stark counterpoint to the landscapes and practices of the contemporary world-system The Growth of the Early Empires  World-Empire - a group of mini-systems that have been absorbed into a common political system while retaining their fundamental cultural differences  Can be characterized as Redistributive-Tributary (wealth is appropriated from producer classes by an elite class in the form of taxes or tributes - this redistribution of wealth is most often achieved through military coercion, religious persuasion or both)  Best-known world-empires are the largest and longest lasting of the ancient civilizations - Egypt, Greece, China, Byzantium, and Rome  World- empires brought two important new elements to the evolution of the world`s geographies: 1) Urbanization - Towns and cities became essential centres of administration, military garrison, and theological centres for the ruling classes, who were able to use military and theological authority to hold their empires together - Gave rise to: monumental capital cities and to a whole series of secondary settlements which acted as intermediate centres in the flow of tribute and taxes from colonized territories 2) Colonization - Colonization was an indirect consequence of operating: o Law of diminishing returns - the tendency for productivity to decline, after a certain point, with the continued addition of capital or labour or both to a given resource base - Because of this, the world empires could only support growing populations if overall levels of productivity could be increased - but for each additional person working the land, the gain in production per worker was less - Usual response - to enlarge the resource base by colonizing nearby land - Spatial consequence in terms of establishing dominant/subordinate spatial relationships between original areas of settlement within world-empires and colonies - created improved transportation networks - Military underpinnings of colonization also meant that new towns and cities now came to be carefully sited for strategic and defensive region 2.1 Visualizing Geography  Legacy of the World-Empires  Long after they have collapsed, the physical remains of imperial systems survive in today's landscape  Ruined defensive systems, cities, walls, and aqueducts provide some of the tangible signs that these places were once part of previous economic and political system Hydraulic Societies  Some world-empires were exception in that they were based on a particularly strong central state, with totalitarian rulers who were able to organize large-scale, communal land improvement schemes using forced labour  Their dependency on large-scale land improvement schemes (particularly irrigation and drainage schemes) as the basis for agricultural productivity characterize them as hydraulic societies  Today, their legacy can be seen in the landscapes of terraced fields hat have been maintained for generations in such places as Sikkim, India and East Java, Indonesia The Geography of the Pre-Modern World  Characteristics of the Old World (A.D. 1400) I. Harsher environments in continental interiors were still peopled by isolated, subsistence- level, kin-ordered hunting and gathering mini-systems II. The dry belt of steppes and desert margins stretching across the Old World from the western Sahara to Mongolia was a continuous zone of kin-ordered pastoral mini-systems III. Areas where various forms of sedentary agricultural production extended in a discontinuous arc from Morocco to China, with 2 main outliers: in the central Andes and in Mesoamerica  More-developed realms were interconnected through trade, which meant that several emerging centres of capitalism existed  Traders in port cities began to organize the production of agricultural specialities, textiles, and craft products in their respective hinterlands  Hinterland - of a town or city is its sphere of economic influence - the tributary area from which it collects products to be exported and throughout which it distributes imports MAPPING A NEW WORLD GEOGRAPHY  European merchant capitalism reshaped the world  Factors that motivated European overseas expansion:  Relatively high-density population and limited amount of cultivable land meant that there was a continuous struggle to provide enough food  Desire for overseas expansion was intensified by both competition among a large number of small monarchies and inheritance laws that produced larger #'s of impoverished aristocrats with little or no land of their own  Many were eager to set out for adventure and profit  Motivating these factors were the factors of innovations in shipbuilding, navigation and gunnery  Europeans were able not only to send adventurers for gold and silver but also to take land, decide on its use, and exploit coerced labour to produce high-value crops (sugar, cocoa, indigo) on plantations  Plantations - large landholdings that usually specialize in the production of one particular crop for market  Innovations in business and finance (banking, loan systems, credit transfers, commercial insurance, and courier services) helped increase savings, investment, and commercial activity in Europe  European merchants and manufacturers also became adept at import substitution  Import Substitution - the process by which domestic producers provide goods or services that formerly were bought from foreign producers  After 300 years of evolution, roughly between 1450 and 1750, the world-system had incorporated only parts of the world  The principle spheres of European influence were Mediterranean North Africa, Portuguese and Spanish colonies in the Americas, Indian ports and trading colonies, the East Indies, African and Chinese ports, the Greater Caribbean, and North America  The rest of the world functioned more or less as before, with slow-changing geographies based around modified mini-systems and world-empires that were only partially and intermittently penetrated by market trading Industrialization and Geographic Change  With the new production and transportation technologies of the Industrial Revolution (from the late 18th century), capitalism truly became a global system that reached into virtually every part of the world and every aspect of people's lives  New production technologies, based on more concentrated forms of energy, such as coal, helped raise levels of productivity and create new and better products that stimulated demand, increased profits, and created a pool of capital for further investment  New transportation technologies triggered successive phases of geographic expansion, allowing for internal development as well as external colonialism and imperialism, the deliberate exercise of military power and economic influence by core states to advance and secure their national interests  Colonization and imperialism that accompanied the expansion of world-system was closely tied to the evolution of world leadership cycles - Leadership Cycles - periods of international power established by individual states through economic, political, and military competition - Long-term success of world system: dependent on economic strength and competitive which brings political influence and pays for military strength - Combination of economic, political, and military power, individual states can dominate the world-system, setting the terms for many economic and cultural practices and imposing their particular ideology by virtue of their pre-eminence o Hegemony - domination over the world economy exercised by one national state in a particular historical period through a combination of economic, military, financial and cultural means o Long run: costs of maintaining this power and influence tend to weaken the dominant power which brings the possibility of a new dominant power (World Leadership Cycle)  In addition to the complete reorganization of the human geography of the original European core of the world-system, industrialization has extended the world-system core to the US and Japan Europe  Three distinctive waves of industrialization have occurred 1. 1790 - 1850 o based on the initial cluster of industrial technologies (steam engines, cotton textiles, and ironworking) was very localized 2. 1850 - 1870 o European industrialization began with the emergence of small industrial regions in several different parts of Britain o As new rounds of industrial and transportation technologies emerged, industrialization spread to other regions with access to raw materials and energy sources, good communications and large labour markets 3. 1870 - 1914 o Saw a further reorganization of the geography of Europe as yet another cluster of technologies (including electricity, electrical engineering and telecommunications imposed different needs and created new opportunities) o During this period, industrialization spread for the first time to other parts of Europe o Overall result: was to create a core within a core, an area of prosperity centred on the "Golden Triangle" stretching from London to Paris to Berlin United States  End of 19th century, the core of the world-system had itself extended to the US and Japan  US - political independent before the beginning of the Industrial Revolution was able to make the transition from the periphery to the core due to favourable circumstances a. Its vast natural resources of land and minerals provided the raw materials for a wide range of industries that could grow and organize without being hemmed in and fragmented by political boundaries b. Its population - growing quickly through immigration allowed for a large and expanding market and cheap and industrious labour force c. Its cultural and trading links with Europe - provided business contacts, technological know-how and access to capital for investment in a basic infrastructure of canals, railways, docks, warehouses and factories Canada  By 1900, Canada remained dependent on the core, but it had become more integrated into the world-system  Moved from periphery to semiperiphery status on a world scale  Loss of Britain's colonies in America now meant that Canada became the focus of British colonial activity in North America (1760)  Confederation in 1867 - Canada became in charge of its own affairs  Increasing involvement of US financial interest in Canada's economy was causing another change: Canada was shifting from being a dependency of Britain to become dependent on the US regional core  Canada's National Policy of 1879; Policy - promoted the completion of a transcontinental link to tie the country together, encourage immigration to the Prairies, and introduced tariffs to protect Canadian industry from cheaper American manufacturers  Existing Canadian staples of fish and furs, the 19th century added to the development of a significant timber trade in Quebec and Ontario, the export of wheat from the Prairies to European market, and, by the 1920s, beginnings of pulp and paper production in British Columbia for American markets  Unlike the US economy, Canada remained heavily dependent on the exploitation of its natural resources, or staples, for sale overseas - Danger: o Staples Trap - An over-reliance on the export of staples makes an economy (national or regional) vulnerable to fluctuations in world prices without alternatives when resource depletion occurs o Paradox of high levels of exports could result in such low levels of economic growth in Canada itself  Staples Thesis - a proposition arguing that the export of Canada's natural resources, or staples (such as fur, fish, timber, grain, and oil), to more advanced economies has hindered the development of this country's economic, political, and social systems)  If we focus on outcomes rather than on principles, is that Canadian economic growth could only be achieved, according to the staples thesis, by the continual discovery of new forms of staples to export (this is also why many local economic activities in Canada have not produced sustained growth in other sectors of the local economy)  W.A. Mackintosh - believed staple production was merely a stage in a country's economic evolution and that a mature economy would develop once investment from staple production stimulated the diversification of industry 2.2 - GEOGRAPHY MATTERS - World Leadership Cycles  Modern world-system has so far experienced the following 5 leadership cycles: 1) Portuguese Dominance  Established through initial advantages derived from Atlantic exploration, trade, and plunder  Treaty of Tordesillas consolidated these advantages by limiting direct competition with Portugal's chief rival, Spain  Treaty allowed Portugal to lay claim on to any territory to the east of a line drawn north-south (By, 1550, they established many outposts around the world) 2) Dutch Dominance  Began with the defeat of the Portuguese-backed Spanish Armada (against England) in a decisive naval battle in 1588  Dutch ports and shipping dominated European trade, and government coordinated trade through the Dutch East and West India Company  Hegemony of the United Provinces of the Netherlands (Dutch Republic) continued until 1660s, when both the English and French were able to mount a serious challenge 3) British Dominance  This was sustained in spite of relatively poor domestic resource base, by overseas trade and colonization, backed up by a powerful navy  Second cycle of dominance - based on economic advantages of early industrialization, which allowed for an unprecedented degree of incorporation of the world under British imperial and economic hegemony  WW1 left Germany defeated, Britain weakened, and the US strengthened 4) United States  Economically dominant within world-system by 1920 did not achieve hegemonic power because of a lack of political will to get involved in world affairs  After WW2 - US became the hegemonic power  Its economic and cultural dominance within the world-system has not yet been seriously challenged, though its political and military superiority was in question for several decades as USSR sought a noncapitalist path to modernization and power Internal Development of the Core Regions  Canals and the Growth of Industrial Regions o 1st phase of internal geographic expansion & regional integration: based on the Canal - Merchant trade and the beginnings of industrialization in both Britain and France were underpinned by extensive navigation systems that joined one river system to another - The Industrial Revolution provided the need and the capital for a spate of additional canal building that began to integrate and extend emerging industrial regions - In Canada - main object of canal construction was to improve or protect navigation along the St. Lawrence-Great Lakes corridor, a project ultimately completed only with the opening of the St. Lawrence Seaway in 1959  Steamboats, Railroads and Internal Development o The scale of NA was such that a network of canals was a viable proposition only in the more densely settled areas o 1860 - railroads had taken over the task of internal development, further extending the frontier of settlement and industrializing and intensifying the use of previously developed regions o In other core countries, where sufficient capital existed to license (or copy) the locomotive technology and install the track, railroad systems led to the first full stage of economic and political integration o Although the railroads integrated the economies of entire countries and allows vast territories to be colonized, they also brought some important regional and local restructuring and differentiation  Tractors, Trucks, Road Building, and Spatial Reorganization o 20th Century - internal combustion engine powered further rounds of internal development, integration, and intensification o Productivity was increased, the frontiers of cultivable land were extended, and vast numbers of agricultural labourers, now replaced by mechanization, became available for industrial work in cities o Integration was not simply an interconnectedness through highway systems; it also involved close economic linkages among manufacturers, suppliers, and distributors - linkages that enabled places and regions to specialize and develop economic advantages ORGANIZING THE PERIPHERY  The growth and internal development of the core regions simply could have not taken place without the foodstuffs, raw materials and markets provided by the colonization of the periphery and the incorporation of more and more territory into the sphere of industrial capitalism The International Division of Labour  Fundamental logic behind colonization was economic: need for an extended arena for trade, an arena that could supply foodstuffs and raw materials in return for the industrial goods of the core  Outcome: international division of labour driven by the needs of the core and imposed through its economic and military strength  Division of Labour - the specialization of different people, regions, and countries in certain kinds of economic activities  Result: colonial economies were founded on narrow specializations that were oriented to, and dependent on the need of the core countries  The international division of labour brought about a substantial increase in trade and a huge surge in the overall size of the capitalist world economy - Peripheral regions contributed to this growth significantly  China and India, with large domestic markets, were important; there developed a widening circle of exchange and dependence, with constantly switching patterns of trade and investment Imperialism: Imposing New Geographies on the World  Incorporation of the periphery was by no means entirely motivated by the basic logic of free trade and investment  Countries competing for global influence - the competition developed into a scramble for territorial and commercial domination  Core countries engaged in pre-emptive geographical expansionism to protect their established interests and to limit the opportunities of others  They also wanted to secure as much of the world as possible - through a combination of military supervision, administrative control and economic regulations - to ensure stable and profitable environments for their traders and investors  Second wave of imperialism - brought a competitive form of colonialism that resulted in a scramble for territory  Whole of Africa became incorporated into the modern-world system, with geography that consisted of 3 kinds of space 1. Regions and localities organized by European colonial administrators and European investors to produce commodities for the world market 2. Zones of production for local markets, where peasant farmers produced food for consumption by labourers engaged in commercial mining and agriculture 3. Widespread regions of subsistence agriculture whose connection with the world-system was as a source of labour for the commercial regions  Process of cultural dominance  Subaltern theory - theory examining the ways in which the colonized margin is culturally dominated by the colonizing centre  Centre engages in a process of "othering," in which the experiences of the margin are seen as irrelevant because they are outside the norms of convention  Subaltern theory theory is itself a part of a broader set of artistic, political, and research approaches collectively known as postcolonialism o Postcolonialism - a broad set of artistic, political, and research approaches that examine the consequences of the end of the European colonialism GLOBALIZATION  Imperial world order began to disintegrate slowly after WW2  The US emerged as the new hegemonic power, the dominant state within the world-system core - This core came to be called "First World" - The Soviet Union and China, opting for alternative paths of development for themselves and their satellite countries were seen as "Second World" - Their pursuit of alternative political economies was based on radically different values  Neo-colonialism - refers to economic and political strategies by which powerful states in core economies indirectly maintain or extend their influence over other areas or people - Instead of formal, direct rule (colonialism), controls are exerted through such strategies as international financial regulations, commercial relations, and covert intelligence operations - Because of this neo-colonialism, the human geographies of peripheral countries continued to be heavily shaped by the linguistic, cultural, political and institutional influences of the former colonial powers and by the investment and trading activities of their firms  Imperialism of giant corporations - they had grown within the core countries through the elimination of smaller firms by mergers and takeovers - By 1960s they established overseas and took over foreign competitors  Transnational Corporations - Companies with investments and activities that span international boundaries and with subsidiary companies, factories, offices, or facilities in several countries  Commodity Chains - networks of labour and production processes whose origin is in the extraction or production of raw materials and whose end result is the delivery and consumption of finished commodity  These networks often span countries and continents, linking into vast global assembly lines the production and supply of raw materials, the processing of raw materials, the production of components, the assembly of finished products, and the distribution of finished products Factors Contributing to Globalization  Causes by 4 interrelated forces i. New international division of labour o Involved 3 main changes (1) The US has declined as an industrial producer, relative to spectacular growth of Japan and the resurgence of Europe as an industrial producer (2) Manfacturing producton has been decentralized from all of these core regions to some semiperiheral and peripheral countries (to have lower costs) (3) Specializations have emerged within the core regions of the world-system, specifically high-tech manufacturing and producer services (that is, such services as information services, insurance, and market research that enhance the productivity or efficiency of other firms` activities or that enable them to main specialized roles) ii. Internationalization of finance o Emergence of global banking and globally integrated financial markets o Are the consequence of massive increases in levels of international direct investment o The volume of international investment and financial trading has created a need for banks and financial institutions that can handle investments on a large scale, across great distances, quickly and efficiently iii. New Technology System o Required the geographical reorganization of core economies o Extended the global reach of finance and industry and permitted a more flexible approach to investment and trade iv. Homogenization of international consumer markets o At the core of the entertainment industry - film, music and television - there is a growing dominance of US products, and many countries have seen their home- grown industries wither The Fast World and the Slow World  Core is now a close-knit triad of the geographical centres of North America, the European Union, and Japan (world economy is structured around the core)  Most of the flows of goods, capital and information are within and among these three centres  Among them, they dominate the world`s periphery, with each centre having a particular influence in its own regional expansion zone - its nearest peripheral region  Enormous differences lead many to question the equity, or fairness, of geographical variations in people`s levels of affluence and well-being - Spatial Justice - the fairness of the distribution of society`s burdens and benefits, taking into account spatial variations in people`s needs and in their contributions to the production of wealth and social well-being  Ted Turner - "It is as if globalization is in fast forward, and the world's ability to react to it is in slow motion" - Observations point to an increasing division that now exists between the "fast world" and the "slow world" - Fast World - consists of people, places, and regions directly involved, as producers and consumers, in transnational industry, modern telecommunications, materialistic consumption, and international news and entertainment - Slow World - accounts for 85% of world population; consists of people, places, and regions whose participation in transnational industry, modern telecommunications, materialistic consumption, and international news and entertainment is limited  Digital Divide - inequality of access to telecommunications and information technology, particularly the internet  Manuel Castells - "Fourth World" Chapter 3 - Geographies of Population  2 important factors that make up population dynamics: Birth & Death  Third crucial force in population change is the movement of populations - Forces that push populations from particular locations as well as those that pull them to move to new areas help us understand new settlement patterns  World demographics are described within a world-system framework - Important aspect of the very different economic and social “spaces” that this model produces - High birth rates and death rates are a feature of today’s periphery - Low birth rates and death rates are a feature of the core - Discrepancy in economic and political terms between them generates substantial flows of migrants and refugees THE DEMOGRAPHER’S TOOLBOX  Demography – study of the characteristics of human populations  Geographers focus special attention on the spatial patterns of human populations, the implications of such patterns, and the reasons for them Sources of Information  Most widely known instrument for assessing the state of the population is the census - Census – the count of the number of people in a country, region, or city - Most are also directed at gathering other information about the population, such as previous residence, marital status, income and other personal data  Vital Records – information about births, deaths, marriages, divorces and the incidences of certain infectious diseases - Collected and records of them kept by provincial and territorial levels of government - Schools, hospitals, and other public agencies, and international organizations, such as the World Health Organization, also collect demographic statistics that are useful to population experts  Family Reconstitution – the process of reconstructing individual and family life histories by linking together separately recorded birth, marriage and death rates (no  To get a full picture of what is happening, most contemporary experts prefer to use a combination of both census and vital record information - This is because census data can record only snapshot views (or cross-sections) of a population on the day the census was conducted - They cannot consider change over time; for this, information from vital registration is invaluable - Vital records can track only a limited # of variables over time; censuses give a far richer data picture  Administrative Record Linkage - the linking to get of a number of different government databases to build one database with much more detailed information on each individual - Canada is a world leader in this respect and has, for the purposes of research, combined tax files with record of employment and immigration data to produce a very rich source of information on large samples of the population POPULATION DISTRIBUTION AND STRUCTURE  Population geographers bring to demography a special perspective – the spatial perspective – that emphasizes description and explanation of the “where” of population distribution, patterns, and processes Population Distribution  Some areas of the world are very heavily inhabited, while others are only sparsely  Degree of accessibility, topography, soil fertility, climate and weather, water availability and quality, and type and availability of other natural resources are some of the important factors that shape population distribution  Population numbers are significant not only at the global scale but also at other levels  Population concentrations within countries, regions and even metropolitan areas are also important for showing us where people are Population Density and Composition  Density – numerical measure of the relationship between the number of people and some other unit of interest expressed as a ratio  Crude density (arithmetic density) – total number of people divided by the total land area - Tells us very little about the opportunities and obstacles and the relationship between people and land contains  In addition to exploring patterns of distribution and density, population geographers also examine population in terms of its composition, that is, the subgroups that constitute it  Understanding population composition enables geographers to gather important information about population dynamics (example: composition in terms of the total # of males and females, number and proportion of old people and children and proportion active in the work force provides valuable insights into the ways in which the population behaves)  Facing unique challenges are countries with a population that contains a high proportion of old people – a situation many core countries will soon be facing as the “baby boom” population ages  Baby Boom – increased number of births in the two decades following World War 2  Geodemographic Analysis – the practice of assessing the location and composition of particular populations Age-Sex Pyramids  Age-Sex Pyramid – a representation of the population based on its composition according to age and sex  Cohort – group of individuals who share a common temporal demographic experience - A cohort is not necessarily based on age; Cohorts may be designed by such criteria as time of marriage or graduation  Dependency Ratio – measure of the economic impact of the young and old on the more economically productive members of the population - To assess this relation of dependency in a particular population, demographers divide the total population into 3 age cohorts, sometimes further by dividing those cohorts by sex  Young Cohort – members of the population who are less that 15 years of age and generally considered to be too young to be fully active in the labour force  Middle Cohort – members of the population 15 – 64 years of age who are considered economically active and productive  Old Age Cohort – members of the population 65 years of age and older who are considered beyond their economically active and productive years o By dividing the population into these groups, it’s possible to obtain a measure of the dependency of the young and the old on the economically active and of the impact of the dependent population on the independent  Aging – term used to describe the effects of an increasing proportion of older age groups on the population  Considerable amount of time has been spent analyzing the public policy implications of Canada's aging population  Youth Cohort (0-15 years old)  Relative and absolute decline of this group challenges the Canadian educational system with the problems of enrolment declines and, ultimately, school closures as the numbers of students shrink (especially when compared with the enormous expansion of the baby boom years)  Colleges and universities, likely to be similarly affected by the decline in these cohorts, have successfully countered the projected declines by increasing the participation rate  Participation Rate - the proportion of a cohort or group that becomes involved in a specific activity such as attending an educational institution  Middle Cohort (16-64 years old)  Oldest members - called "front-end boomers" by David Foot - born in late 1940s will be retiring in the next decade or so  Canada's workforce has had to expand enormously to accommodate the employment aspirations of the baby boomers and will only to begin to free up space for younger cohorts when the boomers retire in large numbers (2020 onwards)  Old-Age Cohort (65 years and over)  Policy issues raised by this cohort are primarily those of health care and pension provision, both issues greatly affected by the increased relative and absolute numbers of Canada's elderly  Group is made up of larger numbers of women than men - policy problems are gender- related  Average health care expenditure - individual over 65 costs between 2-3 times as much as someone under 16, the impacts of an aging society are magnified  Policy makers have put forward a variety of solutions to the problems outlined o Pronatalism - If declining birth rates lie at the heart of the problem, the solution may to be try and reverse this trend ("baby bonus" cheques) o Increased Economic Productivity - Problems of an aging society could all be met by simply having more productive economy - An economy that produces more can pay higher taxes and health insurance and pension premiums - When Canada's workforce begins to decline in size, the decline need have no impact on the economy if it is countered by rising productivity o Immigration - Canada's traditional "policy lever," the one used to people the country and fuel the economic growth, is now also promoted by the federal government as a solution to the problems of an aging population POPULATION DYNAMICS AND PROCESSES  To evaluate a different understanding of population growth and change; experts look at two factor: fertility and morality  Birth and death rates as they are also known - important indicators of a region's level of development and its place within the world economy Birth, or Fertility, Rates  Crude Birth Rate (CBR) - ratio of the number of live births in a single year for every thousand people in the population  An area's CBR is influenced by women's educational achievement, religion, social customs, diet, and health, as well as by politics and civil unrest  Availability of birth-control methods is also critically important to a country's or region's birth rate  High levels of fertility in most of the periphery and low levels of fertility in the core  Highest birth rates occur in Africa, the poorest region in the world  Fertility - the childbearing performance of individuals, couples, groups or populations  CBR tells very little about the potential fertility levels  Total Fertility Rate (TFR) - the average number of children a woman will have throughout the years that demographers have identified as her childbearing years, approximately ages 15 through 49  CBR indicates the # of births in a given year; TFR is a more predictive measure that attempts to portray what birth rates will be among a particular cohort of women over time  Population with a TFR slightly higher than 2 achieved replacement-level fertility - Meaning, birth rates and death rates are approximately balanced and there is stability in the population  Doubling Time - measure of how long it will take the population of an area to grow twice its current size Death, or Mortality, Rates  Crude Death Rate (CDR) - The number of deaths in a single year for every thousand people in the population  The difference between CBR and CDR is the rate of natural increase  Natural Increase - the difference between the CBR and the CDR, which is the surplus of births over deaths  Natural decrease - the difference between the CDR and the CBR, which is the deficit of births relative to deaths  Infant Mortality Rate - the annual number of deaths of infants under one year of age compared with the total number of live births for that same year  Important indicator both of a country's health care system and of the general population's access to health care  Life Expectancy - the average number of years an individual can expect to live  Influenced by epidemics Demographic Transition Theory  Many demographers believe that fertility and mortality rates are directly tied to the level of economic development of a country, region or place  Demographic Transition - model of population change when high birth and death rates are replaced with low birth and death rates  Decrease in population growth is attributable to improved economic production and higher standards of living brought about by changes in medicine, education and sanitation  While demographic transition may be a characteristic experience of the core regions of the globe, it appears to have limited applicability to the periphery POPULATION MOVEMENT AND MIGRATION  Mobility and migration reflect the interdependence of the world-system Mobility & Migration  Mobility - the ability to move, either permanently or temporarily (can be used to describe a wide array of human movement ranging from a journey to work to an ocean-spanning, permanent move)  Migration - long-distance move to a new location (permanent or temporary change of residence from one place to another)  Emigration - movement in which a person leaves a country  Immigration - movement in which a person arrives in another country  International migration - a move from one country to another  Internal migration - a move within a particular country or region  Governments are concerned about keeping track of migration numbers, migration rates, and the characteristics of the migrant populations because these factors can have profound consequences for political, economic, and cultural conditions at national, regional, and local scales  Gross Migration - total number of migrants moving into and out of a place, region, or country  Net Migration - the gain or loss in total population of a particular area as a result of migration  Migrants make their decisions to move based on push and pull factors  Push Factors - Events and conditions that impel an individual to move away from a location  Pull Factors - forces of attraction that influence migrants to move to a particular location  Voluntary Migration - the movement by an individual based on choice  Forced Migration - the movement by an individual against his or her will  Eco-migration - a population movement caused by the degradation of land and essential natural resources (environmental refugees) 3.1 HUMAN GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE CHANGE - Population Displacement  Climate Change: An Integrated Framework – The expected impacts of climate change are varied and widespread o It is widely expected that climate change will impact human and natural systems through such things as food and water resources, which in turn will affect economic development and livelihoods  Environmental Refugee – people who have been physically displaced from their homes and livelihoods by the effects of climate change International Voluntary Migration  Canada is a land made up entirely of successive waves of immigrants, adding their own contributions to development of this country, progressively inhabiting its spaces, and constructing their own places  Guest Workers – individuals who migrate temporarily to take jobs in other countries 3.2 GEOGRAPHY MATTERS – Canadian Immigration  The Petworth Emigration Committee, 1832 – 1937  Somali Refugees in Toronto, 1991 – 2005 3.3 GEOGRAPHY MATTERS – Migrant Farm Works in Canada  Migrant labourers, or “guest workers” as they are sometimes called, have played an important part in the economy of many countries  The reliance of one country on people recruited temporarily from another country as migrant labour is often seen as a controversial policy  Although the host country benefits from cheap labour, the migrants themselves are often exploited and their home countries drained of labour and talent  Canada – SAWP (Seasonal Agricultural Workers Program) – began in 1966 o Men were recruited from Jamaica to work temporarily in Canada International Forced Migration  Example: African slave trade o Countries where residents have been forced from their homes by war, abuse, and fear  High fertility rates in some of these refugee camps put considerable strain on the humanitarian aid resources of both international organizations and the host countries POPULATION DEBATES AND POLICIES  How many people can Earth sustain without depleting or critically straining its resource base? Population and Resources  Thomas Robert Malthus (1766 to 1834) o Theory of population relative to food supply established resources as the critical limiting condition on population growth o Set 2 important postulates  Food is necessary to the existence of human beings  The passion between the sexes is necessary and constant Population, Resources, and the Environment  People that share Malthus’s perspective predict a population doomsday  They believe that growing human populations the world over, with their potential to exhaust Earth’s resources, pose the most dangerous threat to the environment  Although they point out the people of core countries consume the vast majority of resources, they and others argue that only strict demographic control everywhere, even if it requires severely coercive tactics, will solve the problem  Moderate approach argues that people’s behaviours and governmental policies are much more important factors affecting the condition of the environment and the status of natural resources than population size  They see the issue as a political one – one that governments have tended to avoid dealing with because they lack the will to redistribute wealth or the resources to reduce poverty, a condition strongly correlated with high fertility Population Policies and Programs  Concerns about population – whether too many people exit for Earth to sustain – have led to the development of international and national policies and programs  Population Policy – is an official government policy designed to affect any or all of several objectives, including the size, composition, and distribution of population o Implementation of a population policy takes the form of a population program  International Conference on Population and Development (1994) o Conference in Cairo had the important effect of insisting on the link between level of development and population growth o At the conference, much discussion ensued about improving the status of women to help control population o However, core and peripheral countries often disagreed about the most appropriate means to halt the present trend of global p
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