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Wilfrid Laurier University
Marinel Mandres

Key Concepts Week Two Space: a general area, usually earth’s surface Region: an area that shares certain characteristics also encompasses many places Location: specific position within some area Place: a location with a specific identity Location: Relative/perceptual: close to, blocks from Absolute: address Latitude: angle (degrees and minutes) North or South of *equator Longitude: angle East or West of *prime meridian GPS: uses receivers, 24 satellites orbiting earth, triangulation GIS: an automated system for the capture, storage, retrieval, analysis and display of spatial data Raster data: digital camera photo, pixels in a grid Vector data: points, lines, polygons (smaller and more intricate) GIS Data Collection Remote sensing: satellite imagery (RADAR), aerial photography Digitizing: any point, lines, and polygon data – ground truthing/field data GIS Data Storage Databases: server based, PC based Other Options for GIS Storage: Excel, SPSS, GIS Software GIS Analysis 3D Modeling: TIN, interpolation, surface and terrain Spatial Analysis: extract, overlay, proximity Spatial statistics: nearest neighbor, spatial autocorrelation Network analysis: cost analysis, distance decay, route layer GIS Application Groups: real estate, firefighter, police, priest, grocery chain Key Concepts Week Three Cultural Geography: our world is divided, especially because of spatial variations in culture Culture: shared unique traits, values, morals, language, habits, activities, customs, symbols and traditions of a given group Cultural artifacts: a historical object that is human made, identify who the creator is and the significance of object Sociofacts: how people are supposed to interact, social norms, differ in different areas and places Semiotics: interpretation of signs in a cultural landscape, an indirect sign that gives information about people’s identity or values, could be in the landscape or on a person’s body Mentifacts: what people are thinking or believe Place making: can tell where someone is from his or her language Language: a commonly understood system of signs, gestures, and vocal sounds Language family: collection of languages related in their origin Dialects: regional or spatial variations in language – more pronounced in older cities because they have been there longer Language Extinction Sense of cultural identity Ability to describe phenomena Movie – language extinction Key Concepts Week Four Population Geography Demography: analysis of the number and distribution of people Population at time 2 = population at time 1 – deaths + in migration – out migration Birth rate: number of births per 1000 people per year Death rate: number of deaths per 1000 people per year Natural increase in population: difference between those two Demographic transition theory: 1) many people are dying (young children are unhealthy) 2) some innovation in health comes so people live longer 3) still growth in population, but starts to come down, industrialization 4) fully industrialized society (low birth, low death) Shape of population pyramid reflects: long term fertility and mortality, baby booms, migration, wars or epidemics What are the advantages of immigration?  Boom to economy  Saved inner cities  Made us culturally diverse and respected world wide  Point system  Contribute to labor force Key Concepts Week Five Agricultural Geography Agriculture: the science and business of cultivation of crops and livestock Geographer’s focus: describing transformation of land/environment, examining the process of how food gets to us, explaining location of agricultural activities Hunting and gathering: not changing the environment, taking what’s needed, not exposed to industry, variety being used Subsistence agriculture: farming for direct consumption, domestication of plants and animals Agricultural Revolutions 10000BC: Europe and Asia subsistence farming, seed agriculture, plow and animals, settlements and population growth 1650AD: Western Europe and North America, commercial agricultural, surplus sold, linked to industrial revolution th 20 century: new world, industrial methods, large farms, agribusiness, and green revolution Expected genetic engineering will be next Biotechnology: a technique that uses living organisms to make or modify products, to improve plants and animals or develop microorganisms for specific uses Benefits: efficiency, high yields, reduced pesticides, better value, growth in new areas Pitfalls: reduced resistance to disease, destruction of advantages of only being able to grow in certain areas, limited use by poor areas, loss of family farms National Geographic Video: selectively choosing genes to produce genetically superior cows ( ) Modern supply system impacts: processed foods less expensive, environmental costs, transportation costs Eat local! Coffee supply system, deregulation in 1989 on the system Affected small farmers cannot compete, other players Agriculture Location Problems Environmental: climate, soils, and topography Cultural: technology, ethnicity Political: policies, competition for land Competition for land (different users): commercial (banks, retailers), manufacturers (factories), residents (people), agriculture (fruit, vegetables), pastoralism (milk, butter, cheese, meat) Von Thunen’s Agricultural Locational Theory: assumes one city, one central market, land users are profit maximizers, land around the market is uniform, one mode of transport to get to market Look up “Bid-Rent” curve Key Concepts Week Six Health Geography Health geography: the application of geographic ideas, info and theories to the study of disease, health and health care Healthy: able to function in everyday activities, physically fit, good mental and physical state, long life expectancy, absence of illness Factors affecting health: access to quality food, genetics, wealth, access to clean water, lifestyle, poverty, exposure, access to healthcare, pollution, environment Insults to health: chemical (drugs), physical (beat up), infections (flu), psychosocial (loneliness) # Detriment: where we are born Interactive relationships: obesity/heart disease, HIV AIDS/lifestyle/access to healthcare Examples: outbreak of cholera in London, swine flu worldwide, Spanish flu Key Concepts Week Seven Urban/Industrial Geography Reasons to move to an urban area: get an education, jobs, access to resources etc., accessibility, safety Disadvantages: lack of space, air quality, pollution Roles of Cities Mobilizing function: efficient environment for labor, capital, materials Decision making capacity: public and private institutions Generative functions: competition, interaction brings innovation Transformative capacity: variety of people/lifestyle is liberating Classic Urban Land Use Models 1) Concentric zone, ring – centralization 2) Sector or “wedge” 3) Multi-nuclei – decentralization No one city exactly fits model, based on North America and Australia experience 1) City will expand symmetrically around CBD, invasion and succession of zones occurs, more distinct residential rings arise 2) (Bid-rent theory) will pay high rent for high traffic areas, will pay to be close to employment and core, want to be close to core but can afford to travel, need cheap land but access to market 3) Know concentric zone model. First by the CBD is zone of transition, zone of working class homes, zone of better residence, commuter suburbs 4) Sector Model 5) Multi-nuclei Model: tendency of some activities to group for cohesions and profit, rent-paying ability, specialized requirements, repulsion of activity by others (closely aligned with world we live in now) New Urban Reality: classic models don’t necessarily fit Re/Deindustrialization: industries moving to urban fringe, brown fields become available, growth in service industry Key Concepts Week Eight Urban Transport Geography Eras COMPACT era: small and dense, highly mixed land uses, some wheels like horse car, wealthy lived near core, rest lived within walking distance, all destinations within ½ hour, CBD forms at most accessible location ex. Tuscany, Israel, Jerusalem, Planked roads: a “freeway” for the horses Horsecar: public transportation STAR-shaped growth era: electric streetcar and commuter rail era, pressures of growth led to transit revolution, tripled speeds, overhead wires installed, expanding in a STAR shaped pattern, ethnic congregations in core Streetcar: public transportation INFILLING Red Auto Era: developer’s new residential construction on fringe, industry dispersal, ethnic and economic segregation, streetcars dismantled AUTO freeway era: U.S/Australia/Canada (Europe/Asia to follow) high speeds + lots of land + cheap gas = rapid low density expansion into segregated zones, unprecedented growth, auto-dependence, suburban sprawl, beginning of sub- centers Highway 401: most important single development changing the social and economic pattern of Ontario. It is still transforming the province’s economy and the social, work and spending habits of its people. MODERN era: emergence of edge cities, identified as a unique single place, all normal functions ex. Tyson’s corner outside of Washington DC or Mississauga Key Concepts Week Nine Human Interaction/Travel Spatial interaction: movement of people/goods/information between locations Sequence of events: movement/trips over space, stops or activities at destinations, acts of communication Events: stationary activity of some type, movement by some mode, social interaction Sources of GPS distortion: random data inaccuracies under dense canopies, systematic inaccuracies in urban canyons, Google earth aerial photos may be distorted, complete data loss when satellites totally blocked, cold starts by turning GPS off or on Urban canyons: buildings on one side of street make the GPS signal go off route Movie: html Michele Vitale PhD student: urban land use: accessibility, congregation and spatial segregation Competing for space: competition for land shapes the urban structure, economic – based on the concept of accessibility and sociocultural – congregation and segregation of groups Accessibility perspective: utility is a function of accessibility > city center is the point of maximum accessibility > accessibility falls steadily with distance Sociocultural perspective: urban structure shaped by successive wav
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