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GG102 Midterm Review.docx

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Sean Doherty

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GG102 Midterm Review Human Geography Definition - Examining and explaining the spatial distribution of human features and activities, and impacts on the environment - Within certain places, regions, or globally (spatial scale) Practical Definition What is where, why there, and why care (Charles Grizner) What is there? Why there? Why care? - Descriptive - Explanation - Impacts - Fascinating - Understanding Maps PROCESS Tables Stats analysis Diagram Conceptual Mathematical Models Mental Maps In Theory: - Cognitive images representing a persons perceptions, feelings, memories, meanings and knowledge of a location - Not a physical map with lines and points. It captures everything (feelings) - Not just spatial knowledge! Practical: - What you see in your mind’s eye when you think of a place/area Mental maps – every has one in their heads Basic Elements of Mental Maps - Paths: for movement - Landmarks: Any physical reference point - Nodes: Foci for travel (Ex: two paths that meet together) - Districts: area that you enter (Ex: body of water) - Boundaries & Edges: Between areas (Ex: line between water and land) - Labels: - Images and Stories: Variety of techniques to convey Sketch Maps A tool for representing a persons MM - But not the only one Tend to look like traditional maps and be: - Simplified - Distorted - Incomplete Analogous to giving someone directions Sketch Map Weaknesses To focused on nodes, routes & landmarks Poorly capture: - Meanings and experiences (Hard to convey) - Interconnections of information - Underlying creation process What could help capture these? - Verbal, video, other technology Mental maps are the “true” basis for all human behaviour and activities (Ex: what are you going to consume, where are you going to go, etc – This is based on your perception) - Navigation - Consumer decisions - Residential choice - Images of city districts - Place marketing - Emotional attachment to places - Sense of identity and belonging Key Concepts in Human Geography Describing the earth: - Space – areal extent, usually earth’s surface - Location – a particular position within space. Can be absolute or relative - Place – a location that has a particular identity (cultural, social, personal, etc) - Region – Large area encompassing many places. Distance - Decay - Friction of … Diffusion Example: Laurier campus Space: 45 acres in Waterloo, plus several outlying areas (Regina street, University Stadium)
 Location: 75 University Ave. West; long and lat.
 Place: Growing, comprehensive university, mostly liberal arts, plus business, plus music etc.
 Region: WLU is in Waterloo Region Location Relative - “Close to …” - “About 2 blocks from … “ Absolute - Address - Latitude & Longitude Latitude - Angle (degrees & minutes) North or South of the equator Longitude - Angle East or West of prime meridian GPS – Global Positioning System How It Works - Receivers - 24 Satellites orbiting the earth o Actually 1000’s of satellites … - Triangulation Figure 1 - Triangulation Geographic Information System GIS - What is it? - An automated systems for the capture, storage, retrieval, analysis, and display geographically- referenced information - Practical: - Modern Day Maps + Powerful analysis Techniques - If you want to analyze data you use GIS, if you want a map then you get a cartographer. Vector vs. Raster Data VECTOR DATA Map data structure using points or nodes and connecting lines as the basic building blocks for representing geographical features - Vector: Points , lines and polygons are basic building blocks - Vector: You can make a happy face by putting points down and connecting them. You can then put a grid on it to geographically locate them - Vector: You could store the data in a table st nd Point Location Colour Point Connections 1 point 2 point 1… (1,1)… Blue.. 5 6 RASTER DATA - Data Structure for maps based on grid cells. Ex: Pixelated image - Ex: Drawing a happy face. You draw a grid and shade in the squares where the point is located - Table: Should store each cell and it’s colour - Vector is easier to store for databases, as you have to store every cell in raster form. - Vector is more accurate, unless the raster grid is very large. GIS Data Collection - Remote Sensing (above the ground) o Satellite Imagery (e.g. RADAR) o Aerial photography - GPS tracking - Digitizing o Any point, lines, polygon data - Ground truthing/field data GIS Data Storage - Much info is tied to “locations” … - Databases o Server Based (i.e. MySQL, Oracle, SQL Server) o PCBased (i.e. MS Access) - Other Options o Excel o SPSS o In a GIS software Classic Data Storage - Can demo on board classic flat file data storage – points, lines, polygons listed in rows, “attributes” in columns. GIS software - Professional (e.g. ESRI) - Open source (e.g. qGIS) o Anyone can have the software. Its free - On-line(e.g. ClearMap) - Public (e.g. Google Earth) - GIS shows patterns in data we might not otherwise see o Even the simplest “descriptive” maps help with analysis o More sophisticated analysis techniques move beyond description to explanation - ESRI products … on-line too … - In Google Earth, explore point data, lines, polygons, 3-day buildings, flying, etc. Other Applications of GIS - What would you use it for? Real Estate Analysis - How might the following groups use it? o Real estate agent o Firefighter o Priest o Transit organization o Etc. Cultural Geography What is student culture? - Varied schedules (non 9-5) - Low income - Lots of substance use; experimentation - Lack of firm responsibility - Self-motivated What is culture? - A particular way of life - A shared set of values, beliefs, attitudes, etc. (religious values, language, etc.) MENTiFACTS - Shared social norms, family structure, interpersonal, relationships. SOCIOFACTS - Material & symbolic practices of everyday life. ARTIFACTS (ex. person wearing a backpack  obviously a student) What is Cultural Geography? - How place/space/landscape affects and interacts with culture. Cultural Landscapes Semiotics - “Signs” displayed in space that give off messages about identity, values, beliefs, and practices - Are you exhibiting any? Geography and Language - Distribution and diffusion of languages - Language o Is place-marking o Used to describe our world o Preserves our ancestry and where we came from Adaptation to Life in Harsh Environment - Language o Commonly understood system of signs, gestures, and vocal sounds - Language family o Collection of languages related in their origin - Dialects o Regional/spatial variations in language (pronunciations, grammar, vocabulary) Classifying Languages English on the Internet - Lingua franca is the most dominant language. It is most known and best for communication. Used as primary language in math, science, etc Language Extinction - Loss of language can handicap a cultures future o Sense of cultural identity o Ability to describe phenomena Video Inuktitut Language Survival What has led to the language extinction? - When children stop using it - Influence of the outside world - Schools aren't teaching in the regional language, rather, the standard language Could it be reversed? How? - Standardize the language in a region - Changing the way it is taught in school Will standardization help or hinder? - It can make a difference. Greenlandic is the standard in Greenland. If a group loses its language, does it lose its culture? - Yes, sometimes. Depends on the culture Globalization of Culture - People are plugged into global economy and culture - Despite globalization, people play specialized economic roles and preserve cultural identity Places and Culture - Places have a unique mix of cultural traits such as: o Ethnic make-up o Language o Economic Classes o Livelihood types o Specific folkways, mores, and sometimes taboos… o Features of the built environment o Average education levels of population o Etc …. - Cities have different cultures. Different classes, language, etc. Cultural Landscapes - Because of the process of globalization, two places and regions can display similar economic and cultural features - Thanks to modern communications, distant places are more closely connected to each other Spatial Diffusion - Spatial diffusion – “the way tha
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