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GG231 Exam Review.docx

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Rob Milne

Lesson Six - Landslides Be familiar with the different types of landslides and the controls – resisting and driving forces. - Fall o moves through the air and lands at base of slope o dry process triggered by vibrations, human or natural o rapid process – danger to those underneath - Slide o Movement in contact with underlying surface – along plane surface o Identified by; character of surface of plane, type of material(rock, sediment), water content, speed of movement o EX: rockslide - Flow o Plastic or liquid movement, in water or sometimes air o Mass breaks up and flows during movement o EX: mudflow, avalanche - Driving forces o Gravity o Water, chemical weathering - Resisting forces o Strength of material o Cohesion, internal friction Also consider the geographic distribution – in general, U.S. and Canada. - West coast Be familiar with ways of adjusting the landslide hazard – engineering and other solutions. - Slope drainage – capture runoff and transport away from slope; interceptor drains - Slope reduction – grade step slopes; reduce instability with benches and terraces; remove falling material - Engineering to reduce mass movement; armour surface to reduce erosion with concrete, crushed rock, bolts - Engineering to mitigate damage; netting or wire fences, ditches, rock sheds Lesson Seven – Floods General types of floods - Regional o Cover large areas in extensive river valleys with flat topography o Occur following periods of prolonged rain or large snowmelt - Flash o Associated with intense rainfall o Likely to occur where river channel has strong channelized flow o Highly unpredictable o Little warning is possible o Account for most flood related deaths Understand general form of river systems, drainage basins, discharge, channel patterns, use of hydrograph (what it is displaying) - Channel patterns o Braided – large number of intersecting active channels o Anastomosing – two or more channels and intervening stable islands or bars where sediment is temporarily stored o Meandering – single channel shaped like a snake - Drainage basin – region drained by single stream - Discharge – rate of flow – volume of water that moves through a cross section of the river per unit of time, found by multiplying cross sectional area of river with flow velocity - Hydrograph o Graphs rate of flow (discharge) versus time o Shows change in discharge over time Have a grasp of flood prediction, magnitude & frequency of floods, recurrence interval or return period. - Recurrence interval is average time between events of certain magnitude Be familiar with the different approaches to adjusting to the flood hazard. - Levees, dams, sandbags, forecasting, zoning, land use, insurance Lesson Eight – Wildfires Processes that initiate or are the agents of fire, limiting factors; - Ecological agent General phases of wildfires and what is the role of wind. - Be familiar with the development of fire maps to predict risk. - Be familiar with the impacts and responses - Be familiar with the management strategies and results. - Be familiar with the changing attitude to fire management – control and burns. - Lesson Nine – Diseases Should be familiar with general concepts, terminology, spread of disease. - Outbreak – simultaneous, related occurrences of several cases - Epidemic – uncontrolled outbreak of communicable disease - Pandemic – wide travelling simultaneous epidemics of same condition - Epidemiology - Study of distribution and determinants of health related events in human population - Communicable diseases are leading cause of death in developing countries due to socio-economic conditions, limited prevention, water contamination - Spread of disease occurs o if population isn’t immune and includes carriers o If susceptibility to disease increases through conditions such as malnutrition - Transmission rates increase because of o Water contamination o Lack of routine prevention programs o Overcrowding in refugee camps leading to increased contact with carriers - Unpredictable in severity, mortality and spread - Occurs in waves, increasing in severity and differing in targets This lesson, as with the video, is presented through a series of case studies of different diseases Bubonic plague - general causes, symptoms, vulnerability; - Spread by rodents – fleas to rats to humans - Symptoms include; swelling of lymph nodes, infection, pneumonia leading to high fever, delirium, vomiting, bleeding and finally death st - 1ndandemic – Justinian’s Plague in Asia, Africa and Europe, 100 000 victims - 2 pandemic – Black Death, half in Asia and Africa, half in Europe, 50 000 000 deaths - 3 pandemic – Hong Kong, carried by rats on steamships, spread worldwide, preventative measures limited outbreak and deaths - No noticeable groups are more vulnerable - Gathering in groups allows it to spread more easily Cholera – general overview, role of geography, GIS in controlling this disease; - Water-borne disease that comes from sewage and contaminated water supply - ‘Mapping’ used to find source of disease - Geographic Information Systems (GIS) used to locate the source and track spread of epidemics AIDS, causes, symptoms, vulnerability, global patterns; - Transferred through exchange of bodily fluids, blood and semen - Failure of immune system - Originally believed vulnerability limited to homosexual activity, IV drug use and hemophiliacs - Vulnerability now linked to poverty, 95% of cases in poorer countries - No cure, drugs extend life, chronic disease now Bird Flu and Influenza pandemics – overview of bird flu, general characteristics of other influenza events. - Bird Flu o became evident in 1997 due to large poultry deaths o Focus on H5N1 strain because of its ability to transfer from bird to human, high mortality in humans and potential for severe pandemic o Occurs naturally in birds, contagious among birds but not humans o Contracted from eating infected pultry, contact with fecal matter or other liquid secretions of infected poultry - Flu Pandemics o Occur once every 10 to 50 years, spread globally within a year and highly contagious o Come with little warning, peak rapidly and then subside o Comes in waves, 2 and 3 waves stronger than 1 st - Spanish Flu o 1918-1919 o Killed 40 million people o Spread by soldiers travelling through Europe to North America o Targeted young adult group, adults under 65 o Spread throughout the atmosphere - Asian and Hong Kong Flu o Targeted infants and elderly o Not as deadly due to preventative measures taken to prevent outbreak Lesson Ten – Technology Be familiar with differences in technological disasters compared to natural - Varies from single toxic chemical accident to entire industry such as nuclear power - Human involvement can vary - Health issues with long term exposure to chemical pollutants or low-level waste - Safety issues threaten group deaths by concentrated releases of energy or materials - Death toll can vary by country - Death toll substantially lower for techno-disasters around the world - Death toll similar between techno-disasters and natural disasters in Europe and North America - Focus on areas that affect economic systems; transport lines, production centres - Groups most affected are upper and middle class and consumer groups - Those in industry, transportation systems, city life most vulnerable Know the different types of techno–disasters - Global or multiple extreme hazards o Widespread and
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