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Midterm Notes Chapters 1-3, 9

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Chapter 1Introduction to Natural HazardsHazardany natural process that threatens human life or propertyRiskthe probably severity that a destructive event will occur multiplied by the events likely impact on people and propertyDisasterCatastropheevents that cause serious injury loss to life and property damage over a limited time and within a specific geographic areaAverage annual loss of life per year 150000Financial loss from natural disaster exceeds 50 billion per yearMitigation efforts to prepare for disasters and to minimize their harmful effectsGeologic CycleoTectonic Cycleinvolves creation movement and destruction of tectonic plates and one cycle can last more than 200 million yearsoRock Cycleworldwide recycling of three majore groups of rocks driven by Earths internal heat and by energy from the sunoHyrdologic Cyclecycling of water from oceans to the atmosphere to continents and islands and back again to the oceansoBiogeochemical Cyclecycling of an elements through the atmosphere lithosphere hydrosphere and biosphereDivergent Boundaries occurs where two plates move away from each other and new lithosphere is producedConvergent Boundariesoccurs where two plates collide head on Crystallization of molten rock produces igneous rocks beneath and on Earths surfaceSediments are converted to sedimentary rocks by lithification compaction and cementation of sediment during burialSedimentary rocks may be metamorphosed by heat pressure and chemically active fluids into metamorphic rockResidence Time estimated average amount of time a drop of water spends in any one compartmentranges from days in atmosphere to hundreds of thousands of years in ice sheets5 concepts to understanding natural hazards1Hazards can be predicted through scientific analysis2Risk analysis is an important element of understanding the effects of hazardous processes3Linkages exists between different natural hazards and between hazards and the physical environment4Damage from disasters is increasing5Damage and loss of life from natural disasters can be minimizedLanduse changes such as urbanization and deforestations may increase frequency or amplify effects of some processesPrediction and WarningoLocationoProbability of OccurrenceoPrecursor Eventshelps predict when and where a disaster will happenoForecastingoWarningMajor zones of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions identified by mapping 1 where earthquakes have occurred historically 2 areas of young volcanic rock 3 locations of active and recently active volcanoesForecasts and warnings are useful only if they provide people adequate time to respond in appropriate mannerFrequent problem of risk analysisdata required to determine probability or consequences of event are inadequate or lackingInequities in health education and wealth between developed and developing countries aggravate problemsPopulation growth is hazardous to our survivalexposure to hazardous natural processes increased pollution reduced availability of food clean drinking water and other vital resources and greater need for waste disposalMagnitude amount of energy released during an earthquakeImpact of hazardous events influence by factors such as climate geology vegetation population and land useDirect effects of a disasterdeaths injuries displacement of people damage to property and infrastructureIndirect effectspostdisaster impactscrop failure starvation emotional distress loss of employment reduction in tax revenues higher taxes to finance recoveryProactive Responses to hazardsoInsurance oEvacuation
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