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Midterm

GG251 MIDTERM REVIEW.docx

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Department
Geography
Course
GG251
Professor
Ada Sharpe
Semester
Fall

Description
GG251 Cartography MIDTERM REVIEW Lectures: Significant Information Video: Penn State University How maps can be manipulated as well as used to determine where people are located, certain types of people and ages as well as who people are. New Theory: Mapping as a process of visualization – Increasingly with the aid of computer assisted cartography and geographic information systems, the mapmaker and the map user are the same person. Reflecting this trend the cartographic communication model is now commonly understood as a visualization model, wherein the user has a more active role in the collection, analysis and representation of spatial data. 3 kinds of objects in the object based map software: - points - polylines - polygons Two different models of representing features and phenomena on the screen: - object based (vector) - field based (raster) *most map images raster Spatial visualization: mental manipulation of visual cues through the rotation, twisting or inversion of an object. In geography, this ability may be applied to visualize relationships between dynamic forces not fully visible on earth’s surface. Spatial orientation: ability to imagine an object’s appearance from another perspective. In geography, this experience can be equated with map reading, the process of translating a position on a map to one’s location on the earth or vice versa. Spatial relation: which involves recognition, association, and correlation of spatial patterns and distributions over an area. Landmarks: prominent points of interest. Pathways: paths, street ways etc. Districts: downtown, dorms etc. Nodes: meeting places, centers where pathways cross. Edges: breaks on the map between districts. Symbolic representations: - typically small scale (world maps) - display theories and views of the earth in the universe - reflect the interests of philosophers and thinkers Working instruments: - typically large scale (local maps) - represent smaller landscapes for the purpose of the navigation and social regulation through land management and taxation - reflect the interests of travellers, scientists and civil servants Major periods in cartographic history: - prehistoric maps - ancient maps - medieval European maps (AD 400-1425) - Islamic traditions (700-1300) - Renaissance maps (1425-1600) - Reformation of cartography (1600-1818) - 20 century and on List maps: annotations inside manuscripts. Lists of places and things within the map. Zonal maps: a map by what they knew – created zones of cold and warm, a zonal variation in temperature. Detailed or complex maps: mostly symbolic maps done by people in the church with color and little symbols. Working map: showing something for a specific purpose. Ex. roman road map showed no attempt to create world’s water bodies just the roadways. Perspectives on Cartography Cartography: the discipline dealing with the conception, production, dissemination and study of maps in all forms. Technology: very prominent as virtually everywhere and at every stage the computer is employed in map construction and dissemination. Science: the technology is backed and developed by science, the properties of geographic information and the mapping of atmospheric, geological and economic processes all require a deeper understanding of the underlying science. Art: aesthetics, the art and craft of being able to design and produce a new map. Culture: maps as cultural artifacts and expressions of dominant world views in different places, different times and different social contexts; of interest to cultural and social historians, art historians, cultural anthropologists and cultural geographers. Cartographic communication: research understanding human eye-brain mechanisms, human memory systems, human information processing, artificial intelligence, perceptual psychology, and linguistics. Political economy: cartography as an instrument of nation-state and corporate control both historically and in contemporary settings. Map: a symbolized image of geographic reality, representing selected features or characteristics, resulting from the creative efforts of cartographers and designed for use when spatial relationships are of special relevance. Communication: mapping is a fundamental form of representing space and location, and it occupies a central place in the experience and development of the majority of people who have lived in large groups. Transformation 1: the cartographer’s conception of reality; from something physical to something conceptual; uses codes of cartographic convention and design – in the cartographers mind. Transformation 2: perception and understanding of the map; decoding the map – in the map user’s mind. Mental Maps Intangible maps: representations of spatial relations in our head. Tangible maps: representations of spatial relations on paper or computer screens. Cognitive map: the product of cognitive mapping, whereby an individual acquires, codes, stores, recalls and decodes information about the relative locations and attributes of phenomena in his everyday spatial environment. Sketch map: a drawing of an individual’s cognitive map. The quality of the sketch map will vary with the individual’s ability to draw. Egocentric: self-centered, things in relation to us. Geocentric: orienting ourselves to the external environment. Map elements: landmarks, pathways, nodes, districts, edges. Georeferencing: placenames, north arrow, directional arrows or distances. History of Cartography II Renaissance Maps: 1425-1600 Reformation of Cartography: 1600-1818 – period of rapid scientific and technological innovation and increasing knowledge of geographic information. Mercator Projection: projection of globe onto rectangular sheet. Cassini Family: 1625-1784 – development and application of an observation-based scientific approach to cartography in France. Purpose of Maps Map types: general or reference, thematic, charts. The map maker’s intended scope of purpose. Map functions: navigation, measurement, visualization. The function of the information extracted from the map. A map is an accessible and highly efficient means of storing spatial data. Map usage: reading, analysis, interpretation. The skills needed to effectively use the maps. Navigation: maps for navigation include road maps, bus route maps, tourist maps, hydrographic charts and aeronautical charts. Some flexibility in routes: identification of alternative routes, planning routes with several stops, searching for and identification of landmarks, recovery from navigation errors without having to retrace the route. Measurement: field measurement is a costly and time consuming activity. Field measurements relating to the geometry of the landscape can be avoided by using suitable maps. Measurements such as area, height, distance, perimeter, slope, aspect etc. can easily be obtained from appropriate maps. They can also be used to monitor change over time, however not all maps are suitable for all types of measurement. Visualization: maps allow us to perceive relationships which we cannot observe because of our limited range of view, given our vantage point at the surface. Visualization also allows us to interact with geographic data, to change scale and perspective, and to search for, identify and describe spatial patterns and relationships. Map use: learned pr
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