GG270 Delivered Curriculum ePortfolio Assessment 2.docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Margaret Walton- Roberts

GG270 Delivered Notes (my personal notes from the lecture, not necessarily what was posted on the slides) Feb 4 , 21013 Lecture- Nature and Culture Nature - Culture - ecology works with cultural geography, interacting post war - cultural materialism connects to urban landscapes/ industrial geography Humans + Nature - Greek + Christian thought - theology beliefs that nature was created for humans by God - with this comes power, supremacy anthresponthbilities for humans within nature - Scientific Revolution + Enlightenment (17 and 18 C) - began to challenge theology because it can‟t be empirically proven (it is faith based), this challenged the power of the church - empirical/ knowledge based -Romanticism + Sublime Nature (1750s- 1850s) - nature - becomes almighty wonder + something that brought fear - sublime - idea of pain and fear (the power of nature) but also brings pleasure when observing (awe) - continuation of wonderment of nature but challenge human domination over nature - Darwinism (1859) - Origin of Species - scientific naturalism - challenges theology, promoting evolution (naturalism) over Church - “we are not over nature, we are of nature” - Church was fundamental belief of the world at the time, this was a huge challenge - 2000 Humans Produce Nature (Anthropocence) - informed - new geological epoc - **era where human impact has fundamental impact of the world, changing the sphere (ex. Geological layer of Earth forming on the ocean floor made of plastic) also climate change - anthropogenic - recognition that as humans we are part of nature but we don‟t understand the repercussions of our actions - watch: How the Earth Made History - The Age of the Anthropocy Art Christian - disconnect from the environment - the natural world perfectly suited human - adds to the theology that God made the world for humans - Adam + Eve - Arc - God resets the world through the great flood, identified good person (Noah) to take care of it - dominant species is human Native Art - assumed as premodern (?) - don‟t connect ourselves as within the animal kingdom - Native beliefs oppose this (dualistic) - connect humans with the land/ nature rather than above it *- creation stories about how the world is created through animal gods - deep connection of people IN the environment - Canadian native Raven - representation of animal spirits (tricksters) - how their behaviours trick authority figure - out wit (ex. Aesop‟s Fables) - facilitate good - embody both men + women Animal Kingdom - dolphins/ whales also have a different/ regional language - humans assume their characteristics are above animal actions - humans farm, build cities, etc (use of tools/ technology) - apes also use technology - arguments are all discredited by animals doing similar actions - Earth: we don‟t know how to react/ remedy our actions, our technology has gotten away from us, humans can‟t control their own actions or the Earth Video: 1950s globalization/ the great expansion - many have a lot, still many have nothing - repercussions of climate change + human actions (mining, etc) - Anthropocy - destabilizes the planet, changing processes of the Earth - our responsibility to make changes - recognize we are part of nature - need for reconnection with premodern ideology - human apex - need for political change - level of engagement with environment to match the level of technology to make changes Humans + The World - Western ideology puts humans as different than animals - humans create hierarchies: race, gender, class, nationality - how am I better than someone else? - evident in colonialism - argued as different species - ideologies have material consequences - Scientific Revolution - geology caused scientists to question human places in the world developing new ideas about the natural world Human - Nature Relations - Environmental Determinism - our lives (how we live/ what we do) are determined by our environment ( Gerald Steel) - we can‟t reconnect to this ideology - Environment Possibilism - various possible outcomes because of different human environments - Landscape School - understanding how humand interpret nature - Environmental Probabilitism - environmental possibilism with differing probability - Environmental Perception - Ecology - understanding nature and human role within Ecology - not about conservation but understanding the relationship between things and the environment - entire system view and structure - social Darwinism embeds humans in ecology as part of a system creating human ecology and sociology - 1920s and 1930s Chicago School (used the city as the environment for these theories) - Ernest Burgess - using ecology they understand the language of urban change (succession, segregation, competition) - Post WWII criticism of Environmental Determinism (gives humans some agency) creating symbolic interationism and cultural ecology - focused on city planning, etc that limit human growth (environment) but humans have a large impact/ decision making - see city diagram - this allows for planning of transportation, etc BUT social orders alter the city scape (ex racial minorities are in poor zones) - ethnic competition/ transition Cultural Ecology - Julian Stewart (man) - felt that culture connection to the environment was more important than physical - technology is the most obvious shaping of the environment and is an example of culture - ex Green Rev - India (rice testing) - to feed population (problem  technical solution  diffusion of solution) - access to this/ spread of information was tricky - behaviour affects environment - ex hierarchies after possible environmental changes - environmental explanations of culture differences (ex rainfall  economy) but also a need for historical understanding to understand culture/ social outcomes (ex slavery  revolution  debt  economy) - cultural materialism amended/ expended the concept - Ray Williams - theory - 1970s began to pay more attention to the “Productive economy” as urban societies developed (shift from farm city) - culture itself is a productive force - materialism - not a biproduct - challenged base/ superstructure division of Marxism - process of active making - culture can be used hegemonic/ counter Cultural Materialism - culture is part of the superstructure (education, etc) (top) - maintains/ legits the base (working class) - base shapes the superstructure - moves culture to part of the base (culture has processes/ it becomes part of production through relationships) - need to have culture to continue system - need hegemony in base to succeed - couldn‟t understand how the working class didn‟t see their class (consciousness) - cultural internalization of the system is a fundamental part of the base - needs to be part of the everyday - * resistance Human Ecology - Chicago School  Post WWII - didn‟t hold up in geography - complex systems - connects all aspects of the world using models to understand the connections Production of Nature - social construction - production of social practical - applied to nature as social nature - impossible to separate theoretically or physically- social and nature interact/ are intertwined - nature is intrinsically social - connects to Anthropocy through idea that social affects nature 1. Geography - Neil Smith - neoliberal globalization + production of nature - nature is created into a commodity, humans produce space (market + value) through this process - extract resources causing uneven development - climate change demonstrates how we produce nature but can‟t control it - uneven development - similar to thick description - we can‟t just do the empirical research at the local, we must understand the global factors (ex World Bank) and the consequences Nature and Hybridity - Donna Haraway - Cyborgs - machinery that takes on a biological role and controls our bodies - ex Cody Banks micro chip - machine + organism - social reality + fictional character - ex Robo Cop, pace maker, reproductive technology - cyborg becomes a metaphor - combines idea of geography as land O as culture, it can be combined as both Video - genetically altered mouse if trade marked Feb 6 , 2013 Tutorial- Nature and Culture Chimp Video - the organism become property (ex. Mouse, slavery) - cyborg mouse used in cancer research - patient/ trademark of organism- coming together of market, technology and organisms - convergence of market and university also - nature/ technology divide has been penetrated by neoliberalism (market) - Art- lab mouse - symbolizes Christ - repression, lab observation - heavy use of Christian narrative - Art- Coffee Mug – Trickster - Raven figure on the mug symbolizes where she is in life and remembering indigenous focus - trickster rips othersoff – like technology market (consumes others ideas and $) - Art – Woman on Computer - symbolizes Michael Angelo‟s Touch of God - woman connecting to God (computer) and editing/ deleting file (fetus) -download? - links to gender selective abortion – alter the file - disconnect from reproduction and a woman‟s body - integration of technology Bruno Latour - 1993 - don‟t assume scientific work isn‟t biased - production of scientific knowledge? (how did it happen?) - purification: modern socience separation of the human and nonhuman (unstable?) (argues that it hasn‟t happened yet)- this creates modernity - translation – currently happening – creates mixtures, new types of beings, hybrids, networks (actors- human and nonhuman) - connects humans and nonhuman world (premodern) - considers cyborgs/ tricksters monsters  they are everywhere (including premodern cultures) - challenges all of our assumptions of the world Climate Change - hybrid problem (all aspects of climate change have scientific and political integration) - cultural solutions/ analysis - can‟t just deal with it as a natural process that can be dealth with using science, we are beyond this  need political policies to force change, politics informs science Social Nature - (watch videos for reflection) – culture  nature hybridity - Noel Castree – continuation of Neil Smith - David Demeritt- climate model focus (social assumptions) - Bruce Braun- nature/ production of nature - capitalism structuring how nature is viewed - overcome division of nature and culture - Sara Whatmore – animal geography, animals/ companions- division of human/ nonhuman, indigenous communities (highly political), technology and natural connections Conclusion - change how we view nature/ culture, humans/ nonhumans in Western knowledge -critically thinking about “social nature” Middy - 40qs (20 marks), 50 minutes, bring a pencil th Feb 11 , 2013 Midterm Examination - in class test (no notes) th Feb 13 , 2013 Tutorial- The Beauty of Maps: Medieval Maps - in class video (no notes) Feb 18 , 2013 Lecture- Guest Lecture Joyce Lorimer Medieval World Maps and Worldviews - the history of cartography is largely that of the increase in accuracy with which elements of distance and direction are determined and the comprehensiveness of map content - G.R. Crones - maps are fundamental tools helping the human mind make sense of its universe at different scales. They are undoubtedly one of the oldest forms of human communication- preceding both written language and systems including numbers- maps have impinged on the life, thought and imagination of most civilizations that are known through either archaeological or written records - J.B. Harley - medieval maps are found in books but not geographical work, they had a didactic cultural function - the ancient Greeks theorized that the world was divided into 5 climatic zones, two uninhabited frigid zones (N/S poles), two temperate zones divided by an uninhabitable torrid zone (equator) th Feb 20 , 2013 Tutorial- Discourse, Power, Representation Discourse and Power - have to do with the idea that power is exercised through the production of knowledge, in that our knowledge about “reality” is not in face independent of language, but constructed through its use, interpretation and representation effects. As a result, dominant discourses are produced within systems of power relations, and the two work recursively to maintain each other. This is fundamental to the relationship between power and the construction of truth regimes. Identity and Identity Construction - is the notion that identities are fluid and negotiable, but certain aspects of identity are emphasized within the context of dominant discourses of the time. At any time certain elements of identity, whether based on class, religion, gender, or sexuality, and the behaviours they become linked with, will be constructed as “normal”, marginal, or deviant depending upon dominant social norms of the time and place. As such identity must be read through the context within which it is being given meaning, and, in the process how it related to ideals of difference can be determined. Knowledge Production and Representation - is perhaps one of the most radical departures from earlier cultural geo because here the very ideal of how “truth” is produced and advanced is questioned. This approach evolved from feminists who rejected the masculinity of knowledge production (the dominant universal assumption of Western scientific rationalism) and instead argued that no one has the ability to see everything from nowhere(“the good trick” as Donna Harraway called it). Instead Harraway argued that we are all somehow positioned in relation to the knowledge we create (our social location positional), and as such the knowledge we produce can therefore only ever hope to be partial. Academics‟ interpretations of the world then can only reflect and prioritize their own postionality, even if this is not explicitly revealed or problematized Islamophobia -Islamophobia as the “dread or hatred of Islam and therefore, to the fear and dislike of all Muslims” - refers to the practice or discrimination against Muslims by excluding them from the economic, social and public life of the nation - further advances through “clash of civilizations” (Huntington) type discourse that constructs Islam as violent political, not religious discourse -In 2010 the French gov banned wearing the burqa or niqab in public - secularism tied to French nationalism - the veil is a powerful symbol of otherness and othering Excluding Others: Islamophobia and Genderized Islamophobia - Switzerland bans on minarets - Quebec‟s Bill 94 (women in niqabs) - Canada debating ban on face coverings at citizenship ceremonies, public service Veiling Fashion Gorkarikel and Secor (2012) - focus on Turkey - “to handle” this style of dress both in terms of style and bodily deportment - women are subject to “ethico-politics”- relationship between various elements of the self Sexualisation - occurs when: - a person‟s value comes only from his/ her sexual appeal - a person is held to standards that equate physical attractiveness - sexually objectified - sexuality is inappropriately imposed on a person - not all conditions need to be present any one can be considered sexualisation Discussion - What poses the greater threat to women -Western patterns of child and female sexualisation - Islamic expectations of modesty/ religiosity of dress? -What does the hijab or niqab represent? Feb 25, 2013 Cartography General Notes - read/ skim the readings ** - culture+ significant symbols - Stuart Hall - a temporal- doesn‟t include historical change -ePortforlio needs to show the development of understanding/ knowledge/ internalization -final exam is post midterm material Representing Power - colonialism- material weight to where lines are drawn which carry weight for govs/ citizens (matters on the ground but maybe not to the map maker) - a form of simplification - cartographer and geographers hold a lot of power - Harley: “anticipated geographies of colonialism”, maps have intentions embedded in them - to own something claim it through technology (cartography) - colonial maps emptied space of all social lived experience, allowed for the possession of space (Central Place Theory) - life on the ground is irrelevant to the power grid a map creates - not interested in what is there - remake the landscape as you desire -Renaissance maps changed exercise of power- materialistic weight carrying a desired end point Naming - creates a colonial space (backed by technology, weaponry, disease)- maps were evidence to claim land which erased native claim to the lands -material possession of the territory -rivers, mountains permitted exploration and visual possession (possess all that we can see from the mountain top) -explorers invented rather than discovered -erasure of what is actually there and failure to accurately represent - creates a documentary society rather than oral tradition -space is reduced to a stage for imperial history to be acted out -cartography became a tool for documentation and erasure Harley -cartography allows for colonization/ expansion and planning how the geo will be (1 st step)- planned from a distance and then physically claimed - used geo to plan attack and new settlement - maps are not innocent -focused on Colombia and the Americas Perkins -mapping as critical/ cultural interventions -public interest in maps (books, art, etc) -theoreticians focus on words to critique mapping processes -he suggests using maps like we use words to discredit the process of mapmaking Fool’s Cap Map of the World (1590) -after Colombus and some exploration -encompassed in a jester‟s hat -allowed to mock the royalty- could speak truth to the power- a way of advising the King as to how the people see the ruler -this map has deeper symbolism *to understand see the link on slideshow* - generally degrades people who think they can possess this power -Perkins suggests bringing back Danish Prince- means think of cartography as a way of speaking truth to power without threatening the power within the system (much like the jester) - also potential revolution (oppose) Maps Represent + Integrate Data -ex. Slave trade (slaves become a commodity that was shipped) - commodification of goods allowed for colonization Harass Map - Egyptian Activists which displays women‟s harassments in Egypt - powerful display of data Mapping Migrant Detention Centers - data about migrant prisoners within Canada while they seek acceptance (refugee, etc)- criminalization of human rights -this map draws attention to info people may not want to be common knowledge- can display political problems/ embarrassment Video Clip - Mercator map- was meant for travel, not global understanding -size and place distortion - distorts social equality (large countries= powerful ones) -devalues global south and overvalues north -how we think about the world we live in and how that affects politics and development/ global understanding -need to rethink cartography/ how it is used- represent data -move away from colonial focus Cultural Diffusion 1. Traditional approach- focus on the spread of a specific cultural trait (used by Sauer- agricultural- landscape school) -ex. Farming methods, technologies - create social organization 2. Spatial analytical approach - designed to uncover empirical regularities (quantitative revolution) - allow us to have a universal/ abstract to understand change 3. Political economy approach (connects diffusion, culture, power) 1. Cultural Trait Spread - the archaeological findings of items (specific to cultural groups) and their patterns on the land (material culture)- soil today, can also be used to understand how the land was used (ex. Metal smelting) -diffusion is important because of social, spatial spread/ effects -and/ or migration and innovation 2. Spatial Analytical Approach to Diffusion -Torsten Hagerstrand used Monte Carlo simulations to move beyond descriptive focus (moved to quantitative approach)- inserted information he knew and modeled diffusion - critiqued as masculine by feminist geographers (Mei-Po Kwan recently used his geo in feminist geo though) 3. Political Economy Approach to Diffusion - models of diffusion assume homogeneity- this one focused on marginalized data -emphasized issues of marginality, access to power and hierarchy - Indian Green Rev - people who started farming like this becoming wealthy and the process became expensive not allowing peasant farmers to later come in- focused on the reproduction of wealthy farmers - look at deep problems (reproduction of wealth) rather than explaining away the differences **Read Blaut article (challenges colonial theory) - how Europe reproduced its superiority *Perkins Cartography Feb 27, 2013 Tutorial- Case Study: Revisiting European Exploration + Cultural Diffusion, Late Medieval and Renaissance Period Eurthe in the Middle Ages - 5 to 15 C -followed by Modern Era - human observations of the world conformed to Biblical scripture - to continue practice it became fundamental for your findings to connect to Biblical scripture - study cosmography- study of the cosmos (geography, natural science and astronomy) - Picture 1- the world conforming o the cosmos (1544),enclosed with recognition of higher being- framed by religious acknowledgement of our place in the world -Picture 2- Harraford Map of Mundy- oriented towards the east the map contains fabulous animal creatures representing the good/ bad in the world (the known/ unknown - the comfortable/ uncomfortable, the other)- Eurocentric, reflecting the prejudice of the world (social/ political understanding of the time) (ex. Animals are strange/ deformed/ cannibalism) - representative of space and time- imagination of the world at this point draws upon a variety of texts (intertextuality) at the time - surrounded by the celestial beings - maps integrate data into landscape - Medieval maps can display ideologies of texts at the time - fear of expansion - can revolt against the ideology (warning) - maps created for specific body‟s interest (ex. Church, colonization) -Picture 3- religious foundation of how the water flows globally from the oracle - the ability of the church to control the flow of knowledge allows them to control understanding - the age of exploration challenges this Age of Exploration - fails to correspond to cosmology - explorers overwhelm the church with data removing the ability to rework this knowledge- incorporating the new knowledge was a challenge - imperially discovered info (using technology) changed knowledge disarming the church- the church‟s ideas can‟t hold up meaning, there was a decrease in power - the state was interested in these discoveries in terms of colonization but the church lacked acceptance - created the age of enlightenment (Renaissance) Renaissance - 14 to 16 Century - transition between medieval and modern eras - humanistic studies in art and science (Greek and Roman) - beginning of printing - way for info to be stored and shared -diffusion of culture - competition for sharing info (maps) European Exploration - as technologies developed and expanded, brings much information, changes geo and politics st - ex. Diaz Cape of Good Map in 1488 (1 Euro there) -Colombus New World 1492- challenged by claims China arrived first (Menzies) - 1519- 1522 Ferdinand Magellan‟s fleet - emergence of global trade system - distance was diminished (precise technology, ability to travel for longer, etc) allowed for more exploration and creation of permanent settlements - European global expansion 1750 Trade - 17 C global trade economy emerged - driving force- end of 16 C Portuguese directed global economy - 1600 East India Trade Company, 1602 Dutch East India Company - China, India, Arab had long history of land and ocean trade routes March 6 Tutorial Cosmographers General Notes - where are these medieval maps -books, encyclopaedias, religious texts - purpose of them? - moral, Christian overtone - Readings! *work on ePortfolio (March 24 due date) Cosmographers (Guest Lecture Key Notes) - age of exploration allowed for development of maps based on points of reference in terms of exploration rather than ideologies - cosmo maps didn‟t n
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