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GG 282 - Geomorphology Exam Notes

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James Hamilton

GG 282 Exam NotesGlacial Landforms Chapter 7 pg 209226Morainesmoraines o End or terminal moraines o Hummocky ground moraine disintegration moraine o Rogen moraine ribbed moraine o Kame moraine o Other types not considering in this courseground moraine till plain is not a ridge it is an area of low relief comprised of glacial tillEnd moraineEnd moraines o Moraine ridge that is deposited at the ice margino Terminal moraine o Recessional moraine o Composed of material that accumulated across the termini of actively moving iceProcess o Margin of an active glacierPosition is relatively stable still standSediments mostly till transported to margin and deposited Hummocky Ground MoraineHummocky ground moraine disintegration moraine o Wide belt of rolling to hummocky terrain with numerous wales kettles and mounds kames o Comprised of till ice contact and glaciofluvial materials Process of formation o Ice margin debris to surface o Supraglacial sediment accumulates o Meltwater mobilizes flow tills and produces glaciofluvial deposits o Ice melts out depressions and mounds develop Rogen MoraineRogen moraine o Discontinuous ridges transverse to the direction of ice flow crescentic shape o Materials include glacial tills and glaciofluvial sedimentsProcess of formation o There are several theories of formationSediments deposited in shear planes near ice margin fig 74Develop where shear planes leave the floor in ice with a large amount of debris in the basal layersReworking of older features BoltonPart of a continuum of streamlined forms resulting from deformation of sediment beneath the iceFormed during catastrophic subglacial meltwater floods Ice Contact Features KameIce contact features are comprised of water transported and deposited sedimentsIce contact sediments may show deformation folding etc may be less well sorted and also incorporate glacial tillKameo Applied in a narrow sense to mounds of ice contact glaciofluvial sediments and also to a range of ice contact features Kame MoraineKame moraineo Largely comprised of ice contact glaciofluvial sediments with minor till o Often deposited at the ice margin from meltwater flowing in contact with a moving or decaying glacier Moraines in CanadaFigure 72 moraines in CanadaTerminal end and kameDisintegrationRogen Moraines in Southern OntarioFig 76Moraines shown by sediment typeTill morainesKame moraines Ice Contact Features Kame and EskersKame o Consider the depositional environment o Fig 78 glaciofluvial and glaciolacustrine features KameKame o Mound of glaciofluvial sediments and till forms henStagnant or sluggish debris covered iceSediments move into depressionsAs ice melts out materials in depressions form mounds Kame TerraceA terracelike body of material deposited at the side of a valley by melted water that flows along the surface of a glacierIce marginal streams transport and deposit glaciofluvial materialsAs glacier retreats the deposits remain as a terrace an abandoned floodplain Kame DeltaMeltwater streams drain into a proglacial lake
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