GG290 Course Notes.docx

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Geographyand Environmental

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GG290 Course NotesLesson 1Key Terms Conceptsstock resource fund resource flow resource functional definition renewablenonrenewable neutral stuffprimary sector secondary sector tertiary sector staple absolute scarcity relative scarcity physical scarcity geopolitical scarcity economic scarcity resource base reserve natural capacity carrying capacity sustainabilityOnline NotesResources materials or stock that exists naturally in the environment ex A school of fish or deposit of iron ore demand and value can be created in material when it is used by an industry as it becomes considered a resource resource does not apply to a thing or substance but to a function which a thing or substance may perform resources can be destroyed due to changes in technology which make the resource less useful resources can also become devalued or depleted ex Soil resources can be used differently by different groups ex Culture can define resources the interaction between culture and nature is what defines environmental resources only some of nature is a resource neutral stuff if the portion of nature which is not considered a resource it is positioned as below humansideological problemresources are defined by human want need there is no inherent valueContinuous resource will never run out these resources are permanently available in a continuous supply ie Solar wind tidal energyNonrenewable resources are available in specific places and only in finite quantities because although they are renewable they are regenerated extremely slowly on the human timescale is Oil gas coalRenewable resources can naturally regenerate so long as their capacity to do so is not irreversibly damaged also known as flow resources is Plants animals clean water soil can become fund stock resource if overdrawnsome materials can be easily classified is Stock materials such as metals are considered nonrenewable but they can be reusedmined resources some flow resources can also be considered potentially renewable food production resources are only conditionally renewable soil agriculture ocean fish if they are not overdrawn and can continue to provide for their resource staple theory explains how the character and development of the Canadian economy are linked to its strong resource base staple refers to raw unfinished bulk commodity sold in market ie Timber fish and extracted materials and sold without processing or finishing takesTextbook Notes Chapter 1 The Physical Environment soil in a particular place for example reflects the underlying rock type the climactic conditions of the area the plant and animal matter typical of the region an the quantity and quality of water available Suits of characteristics are combined in particular areas called ecosystems one of the main factors determining productivity is the availability of the nutrients key substances for life on Earth a lack of nutrients is often put forward to explain the low productivity climate is another important factor Warm wet climates promotes higher productivity than cold dry ones 1 Tundra2 Coniferous forest also known as boreal forest or taiga3 Temperate forest4 Tropical rain forest5 Tropical savanna6 Temperate grassland7 Desert8 Maquis also known as chaparral Tundra tundra biome is the absence of trees vegetation consists largely of grasses and other herbs mosses Lichens and some small woody plants which are adapted to a short summer growing season poor nutrients little precipitation generally slow rate of biological processes deeply frozen soils permafrost for all or much of the year many animals hibernate or migrate in the colder seasonConiferous Forest north of the Arctic circle needleleaved boreal or taiga forest trees are coniferous such as pine fir and spruce they are tall and have narrow pointy shape which means that the snow tends to slide off their branches while their needles also shed snow more easily than broad leaves these adaptations reduce the likelihood of heavy snow breaking branches pollination occurs primarily due to wind winters are very cold as in the tundra but summers are longer subject to periodic fires and a burnregeneration cycle is important characteristic to which populations of deer bears and insects as well as vegetation are adapted acidic soilsTemperate Forest deciduous shedding their leaves each year characteristic of northern Europe eastern China and eastern an Midwest USA climate is seasonal with abundant water supplies during the growing season amphibians such as salamanders and frogs are present the tropical climate has copious rainfall and warm temperatures in all months of the yearTropical Rainforest the tropical climate has copious rainfall and warm temperatures in all months of the year trees are always green typically broad leaved and most are pollinated by animals many kinds of vines lianas and epiphytes such as ferns and orchids are characteristic most of the nutrients are stored in the biomass and the soils contain little organic matter the forests typically display a multilayered canopy a large number of species of both plants and animalsSavanna flanks the tropical rain forests to the north and south in the African and South American tropics a biome known as cerrado in Brazil the trees are stunted and widely spaced which allows grass to grow between them herds of grazing mammals typify the landscape along with large carnivores such as lions and other big cats jackals and hyenas large scavengers such as vultures the climates is warm all year but has a dry season several months long when fires are a common feature these fires maintain the openness of the savanna ecosystem and are important in mineral cyclingDesert North American prairiehyperarid desert supports very little plant life and is characterized by bare rock or sand dunes but some species of flora ad fauna are adapted to the high and variable temperatures the diurnal temperature range is typically high in deserts and the general lack of moisture some water is usually available via precipitation in one of its forms most commonly rainfall or dew but fog is important in some coastal deserts sporadic sometimes intense rain promotes rapid growth of annual plants and animals such as locusts which otherwise lie dormant for several years as seed or eggsMaquisMediterranean climates in which summers are hot and dry and winters are cool and moist low evergreen trees forming woodland and shrub forming scrub have
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