GG101 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Outgoing Longwave Radiation, Black-Body Radiation, Subsolar Point

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Published on 21 Apr 2013
School
WLU
Department
Geography
Course
GG101
Professor
GG101
Intro
Geography:
Is the science that studies the relationships among, natural
systems, geographic areas, society, cultural activities and the
interdependent of all of these space
Geography from geo “earth and graphin “to write”
Geography is
o A method, not a body of knowledge
o Use spatial analysis
Geography is divided into two major branches
o Cultural geography (human geo)
o Physical geography (natural geography)
Physical Geography
o The spatial analysis of all the physical elements and
processes that make up the earths
Hydrosphere
Composed of all of the water on or near the
earth
Biosphere
Earths living ecosystems
Atmosphere
Body of air which surrounds our planets
Lithosphere
Is the solid rocky crust covering entire planets
Geographic Themes
o Spatial emphasis
Location and place, where features are and wear
their unique characteristics
Earth system concepts
o System: is model or a representation of a portion of the
natural or human landscape
o Closed systems: is isolated and does not exchange
matter and or energy with is surroundings, rare in nature
o Open systems: includes the flow of both energy and
matter. All environmental systems are open systems
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Lecture 4
1) Energy
a. A measure of the ability of a system to do work
b. Note that Work is done when matter is moved over some distance
c. Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but the form of energy can
change. Energy can be transferred from one location to another
i. Examples include kinetic or potential energy
d. Kinetic energy: is associated with motion. It is the type of energy that
a moving automobile or thrown baseball is.
e. Potential energy: is they type of energy possessed by an object
because of its location or configuration and is essentially a relative
quantity
2) Radiant energy
a. The energy of electromagnetic waves (Radiation)
3) Solar output
a. Solar Wind
i. Clouds of charges (ionized) gases emitted from the suns
surface. Responsible for auroras, communications disruption,
possible weather links
4) Electromagnetic Radiation
a. Energy that propagates through space or through a material medium
in the form of an advancing disturbance in electric and magnetic fields
Questions
1) What is the relation between wavelength and frequency?
a. They are inversely proportional if you increase the distance between
the troughs and peaks. You will decrease the frequency with which
each trough or peak passes a fixed point
2) What are the wavelengths of the common forms of radiation
a. Different wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation cause different
types of effects on people
b. UV rays
i. it is radiation that is similar to visible light in all physical
aspects , except that it does not enable us to see things. Uv rays
have shorter wavelengths (higher frequencies) compared to
visible light but have longer wavelengths (lower frequencies)
compared to X-rays
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c. Infrared with wavelengths longer than the color red, is invisible to the
humane eye. Infrared falls between microwaves and visible light
waves because its waves are shorter than microwaves but longer than
those of visible light. Most of the energy from the sun that arrives is
infrared radiation.
d. Visible Light spectrum is the portion of the ray spectrum that can be
detected by the light. We see these waves as the seven colors of the
rainbow. Each color responds to a different wavelength of the
electromagnetic spectrum
Radiation principles
1) Key points
a. All objects with a temperature above absolute zero emit radiation
excluding dark matter
b. The higher an objects temperature the greater amount of radiation
emitted per unit of surface areas
c. The higher an objects temperature the shorter is the wavelength of
aximuum radiant emission
i. Wien Displacement Law
1. The warmer the object, the shorter the wavelength
emitted by that object
d. Objects that are good emitters of radiation ( at given wavelengths) are
also good absorbers (of those wavelengths)
e. A blackbody is a perfect absorber and emitter
i. A blackbody is an idealized physical body that absorbs all
incident electromagnetic radiation, regardless of frequency or
angle of incidence.. it holds a constant, uniform temperature.
ii. Blackbody radiation refers to an object or system which
absorbs all radiation incident upon it and re radiates energy
which is characteristic of this radiating system only. Not
dependent upon the type of radiation which it is incident upon
it
iii. Easy version
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