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GG102 Final Exam Review .pdf

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GG102 Final Exam Review
Conceptual Framework - Globalization and the World System
Chapter 1: Geography Matters
Human Geography: the study of the spatial organization of human activity and of people’s relationship with their
environments. Reveal how and why geographical relationships are important.
About of Canadian adults can be considered geographically illiterate
Places are dynamic, which changing properties and fluid boundaries that are the product of the interplay of a wide
variety of environmental and human factors - setting for daily life, subjective
Exert a strong influence, for better or worse, on peoples physical well-being, their opportunities, and their lifestyle
Places contribute to peoples collective memory and become powerful emotional and cultural symbols
Layering of meaning reflects the way that places are socially constructed - given different meanings by different
groups for different people
The site of innovation and change, of resistance and conflict - unique characteristics of place produce the
preconditions for new modes of economic organization, new cultural practices and a new lifestyle
Most places are interdependent, each filling specialized roles in complex, far-reaching, and ever-changing
geographers (ex. Manhattan, NY operates as a specialized global centre with business and educational needs but
also relays on many other states for other things like food)
Are a dynamic phenomena as they are created by people responding to the opportunities and constraints presented
by their environment
Continuous two-way process in which people create and modify places while being influences by the setting him
which they live
Globalization affecting importance of place: cherished local identities, faster information highway, greater each of
TNCs with labour and consumer markets and greater integration of government and institutions, making people
sensitive to localized cleavages of race, ethnicity, religion or other markers of identity
The Interdependence of Geographical Scales
The study of human geography shows not only how global trends influence local outcomes but also how events in
particular localities can come influence patterns and trends elsewhere
World Regions: large scale geographic divisions based on continental and physiographic settings that contain maor
groupings of peoples with broadly similar cultural attributes; constantly evolving as natural resources and
technologies (Europe, Latin America, and South Asia)
Je Jure Territories: legally recognized, below level of state (provinces, countries, municipalities)
National States are seen as the most important geographic scale because they have the power to enact laws that
regulate the flow of people, goods, money and information
Supranational Organizations: collections of individual states with a common goal that may be economic and/or
political in nature and that diminish to some extent, individual state sovereignty in favour of the group interests of
the membership (EU, NAFTA)

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Wednesday, April 16, 2014
Within most national states and all international regions are smaller, functional regions constructed around specific
resources and industries
The community is loosely defined location of social interaction, of personal relationships, and daily routine, all of
which depend a great deal on the economic, social, and cultural attributes of local populations
The home is an important geographic site insofar as it constitutes the physical setting for the structural dynamics
of family and household
Human geographers also look at the spatial relation of groups of people, allowing for them to understand the
interrelationships between nature, culture and individual human agency in shaping places and regions
T-O Map: stated that the holy city of Jersualem lay at the centre of the world and outwards from it radiated three
continents (Europe, Africa and Asia), separated by the waters of the Nile and Mediterranean - Proven false
Results of Geography’s Involvement:
1. Imperialism: the extension of the power of a nation through direct or indirect control of the economic and
political life of other territories
2. Ethnocentrism: the attitude that a person’s own race and culture are superior to those of others
3. Masculinism: the assumption that the world is, and should be shaped mainly by men for men
4. Environmental Determinism: a doctrine that human activities are controlled by the environment; Friedrich
Ratzel following the logic of Charles Darwin
Ecumene: the total habitable area of a country. Because it depends on the prevailing technology, the available
ecumene varies over time. It is an important concept in Canada’s case, because the ecumene is so much smaller than
the countries total area
Globalization: is a process and a condition that involves the increasing interconnectedness of different parts of the
world through common process of economic, environmental, political, and cultural change
Early 1800s - early global sourcing of wale oil for lamps; Late 1800s - colonialism and imperialism; Entire 20th
century: phosphate as a global commodity; Post-WWI and again post WWII - mandate system as continuation of
colonialism; 1980s onward - corporate and finance globalization
Builds on international division of labour - problems: continues colonial commodity export dependencies of
peripheral countries, adds to wealth of core countries and results structural inequality leading to uneven
Structural Inequality: looking at the world as a global village shows the ratio of people from each country in a
sense that we are in a village of 100 people..
1. Hyperglobalist View: open markets and free trade and investment across global markets allow more and
more people to share in the prosperity of a growing world economy; economic and political
interdependence, creates shared interest that help prevent conflict and foster support for common values;
increasing dependence on IMF and WTO
2. Sceptical View: argue that contemporary economic integration is actually much less significant than it was
in the late 19th century, when nearly all countries shared a common monetary system know as the gold
standard; regionalization because three main markets of Europe, North American and East Asia control the
3. Transformationalist View: contemporary processes of globalization are historically unprecedented, as
governments and peoples across the globe confront the absence of any clear international affairs; suggest

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Wednesday, April 16, 2014
that we are all heading toward a world where places and regions will experience a wide range of internal
changes at the same time that the strength of their connections with other parts of the world will increase;
heading toward increasing social stratification, as some states are more interconnected than others
Key Issues: environmental issues, health issues (increasing trade and disease), security issues (attempted attacks
on different nations and their important buildings)
Tools: observation, fieldwork, lab experiments, remote sensing, and archival searches; once the information is
collected and data recorded, written descriptions, graphs, tables etc can be produced
Remote Sensing: the collection of information about parts of earths surface by means of aerial photography or
satellite imagery designed to record data on visible, infrared, and microwave sensor system
Model: often described as a theory or concept, a model is best thought of as a simplification of reality designed to
help generalize our understanding of a particular process or set of phenomena; it can take the form of a diagram,
equation, or simple verbal statement (such as a law), and may be used as a summary of past and present behaviour or
to predict future events
Maps: a 2D representation of a part of the earths surface; simplifies reality so we can comprehend it better/faster/
more thoroughly but all of this comes at a price of selection, generalization, standards and conventions.
Topographic Maps: represent the form of earths surface and to show permanent features such as buildings,
highways, fields boundaries, and political boundaries
Contour: unusual device for representing the form of earths surface; a line that connects points of equal elevation
Thematic Map: map designed to represent the spatial dimensions of particular conditions, processes, or events; uses
proportional symbol (circles, squares, spheres, cubes, etc.)
Isopleth Map: maps based on isoline; lines connect points of equal value; continuous phenomena, whether maps
Choropleth Map: tonal shadings are graduated to reflect area variations in numbers, frequencies, or densities; data
to relate to specific areas; derived values, density, greek colouring book map
Dot Map: raw values, discrete (countable) phenomena, exact locations
Cartography: the art and science of map making; goals: description, analysis, explanation, and prediction
Areal Units: spatial units of measurement, such as a city block or province, used for recording stats
Map Scale: is the ratio between linear distance on a map and linear distance on earths surface
1. Representative Fraction (1/100) or ratio (1:100)
2. Small Scale: small representative fraction covering large part of earths surface on printed page
3. Large Scale: based on larger representative fraction covering small part of earths surface on printed page
Map Projections: is a systematic rendering on a flat surface of the geographical coordinates of the features found
on earth’s surface
1. Conformal Projections: projections which compass directions are rendered accurately
2. Equal-Area or Equivalent Projections: projections that portray areas on earths surface in their true proportions
3. Visualization: a computer-assisted representation of spatial data, often involving 3D images and innovative
perspectives, that reveals spatial patterns and relationships more effectively
Fundamental Concepts of Geography:
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