GG294 Final: GG294 Final Exam Notes

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3 Jul 2017
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GG294 FINAL EXAM REVIEW
MONDAY, DECEMBER 19TH
ARTS 1E1
7:00PM
20-30 MULTIPLE CHOICE
20 TRUE/FALSE
20 MARKS SHORT ANSWER
(5 MARKS x 4 QUESTIONS, CHOICE OF 5)
20 MARKS ESSAY (CHOICE OF 2)
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The Cultural Impacts of Tourism
Doxey’s Index of Tourist Irritation
-Used to define the social impacts of tourism on residents. It shows that as impacts from tourism
increase, a community passes through a predictable sequence of reactions towards it. !
1. Euphorial
2. Apathy
3. Annoyance
4. Antagonism !
Positive Cultural Impacts of Tourism
-Enhances destination image and pride
-Supports infrastructure and amenities
-Promotes peace
-Allows for diversification of leisure opportunities
-Broadens educational and cultural horizons: breaks down class, race, religion, culture and political
barriers through host and guest interactions
-Provides local employment: decreases social inequality
-Stronger appreciation of local culture and heritage
-Can promote conversation and preservation of heritage and traditions
-Revival of traditional arts, crafts and festivals: employment for artists, musicians and dancers
Negative Culture Impacts of Tourism!
-Increased density
-Coding and noise
-Traffic and congestion
-Pollution
-Loss of privacy
-Social problems
-Crime, vandalism and drugs
-Gambling and alcohol
-Change is too rapid
-Conflict between generations and behaviours
-Disruptive lifestyle
-Perpetuates negative stereotypes:
ethnocentrism
-Commercialization
-Erosion of tradition
-Loss of language
-Child labour
-Prostitution and sec tourism !
Capitalism & Tourism
-Capitalism masks social relations by separating them into spheres.
-Fetishism of commodities
Case Study; New Orleans Superdome:
-Paid for with public funds
-Constructed on the former sites of the Girod Street Cemetery (African-American Cemetery)
-Displaces impoverished communities (slums)
Conclusion
-Tourism system cannot be seen in isolation as the supply of products and services or the demands or
whims of tourists
-Tourism products are unique as they are intangible, inseparable, perishable and about people
-People are marginalized, victimized and feel they have very little choice !
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The Environmental Impacts of Tourism
Stakeholders
-Three stakeholders that are responsible in preventing the environmental impacts of tourism
-Visitors: Following rules, guidelines and expectations, being respectful
-Tourism Suppliers: Sustainable supplies, access to things, hotels & towels
-Residents: Set example, suppling tourists with opportunities
Carrying Capacity
-The level of human activity an area can accommodate without the area deteriorating, the residents
community being adversely affected or the quality of visitor experience declining
-Simple concept but difficult to implement, difficult to calculate
-Three types of carrying capacity
-Physical-ecological components
-Socio-demographic components
-Political-economic components
Limits of Acceptable Change (LAC)
-4 Major Components
-Specifies acceptable and achievable conditions
-Analyzes existing conditions and acceptable change
-Identifies management actions to achieve desired conditions
-Monitors and evaluates management effectiveness
Negative Environmental Impacts
-Destroys the environmental resources on which it depends
-Occurs when the level of visitor use is greater than the environment’s ability to cope
-Impacts natural resources, pollution and physical elements
-Depletion of natural resources: water (golfing), land, natural species, energy, food
Positive Environmental Impacts
-Contributes to environmental protection and conservation
-Raises awareness of environmental values
-Serves as tool to finance protection of natural areas
-More control of harmful activities such as login and commercial fishing
-Greater understanding among local residents of environmental issues
-Provides opportunity for environmental education and awareness
-Encourages community beautification, revitalization and environmental quality
-Promotes improved land use and management
Case Study
-Considers the environmental impacts that cruise ships have
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