GG294 Midterm: GG294 Midterm Review

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3 Jul 2017

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GG294 Midterm Review
-Tourism is travel away from home for more than 24 hours. For leisure or business
-Very multidisciplinary
-Travel: The act of moving outside one’s community for business or pleasure but not commuting to or
from work or school.
Tourism Eras:
-The Golden Age of the 1950s
-Spurred a growth of consumer-driven society in the western developed world and an emphasis on
discretionary spending, greater disposable income and increased availability of leisure time, 5 days
work weeks and more money.
-Changing Politics and Economic Growth, 1990s
-Post-communist countries began periods of economic growth, international and domestic tourism
transformed by the economic climate of the period
-Globalization, 2000s
-Increasing global and free trade to fast growing economies in Brazil, Russia, China and India -
increasing #s of middle class travelling - domestically and internationally.
Difficulties in Studying Tourism:
-Recognition, conceptualization, terminology, reductionism rigour, theory, academic/practitioner divide,
data sources
Defining Tourists:
-Traveller, Tourist, Visitor: A person who stays away from evidence from one night up to less than a
-Excursionist: A person who begins and ends their visit from the same base within the same 24 hours
(cruise ship passengers)
-Classification of Tourists: Chadwick’s Classification of Tourists
1) Resident or Non-Resident
2) Time spent away from home
3) Motivation to travel
Tourism Industry:
-Industry: An organized economic activity concerned with the manufacturing, extraction and processing
of raw material
-Tourism is not an industry
-Tourism is more of an economic sector
-Economic Sector: A branch of commercial enterprise concerned with the output of a specific product
or service
-Tourism contains a set of interrelated businesses, involving travel companies, accommodations,
facilities, catering, tour operators, travel agents, recreational facilities and leisure places
-Tourism is a sector that impacts a wide range of industries
Tourism Systems:
Environments: socio-cultural, technological, economic, political
after Leiper, 1990
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GG294 Midterm Review
Tourism as a Product:
-Is Tourism a Product, Service or Both?
-Product: Manufactured, made on a premise not open to customers (separable), delivered to places
where customers live, purchase means right of ownership, posses tangible form at the point of sale,
can be stocked
-Service: Performed, performed on the producers premises with customer participations
(inseparable), customer moves to places where services are delivered, purchase confers temporary
rights to use at a fixed time and place, services are intangible at the point of sale and cannot be
inspected, perishable, cannot be stocked physically.
Views of Tourism:
-Traditional: Male, Western, Monocultural, First/Developed World
-Non-Traditional: Female, Eastern, Multi-ethnic, Third/Developing World
Travel History & Development:
Beginning of Tourism: Road Travel:
-Early roads were Minoan roads on the island of Crete, 2000-1500BS
-Roman roads were built around 150BC
Roman Tourism:
-Romans sought to escape from the cities in the summer and moved seaside as a result
-Coliseum brought in many people, up to 300,000. Started souvenirs, catering and popular mass culture
Greek Tourism:
-Similar to the Romans: Wanted to avoid crowds and pollution. Also visiting sanctuaries was popular
-We know because of graffiti and the Olympics
Asia, The Silk Road:
-Route through which silk, stones, metals, furs, foods and textiles was traded from China, through
Persia to the Mediterranean.
-Marco Polo Account in 13th century documented the silk road
-Problems included disease
The Crusades:
-1095-1229, Armies of christians from westerns Europe responded to the then Pope’s plea to go to war
with the Arab world
The Pilgrimage:
-Roads fall into disrepair, travel becomes dangerous and difficult
-Travel undertaken for purposes of trade or religion only
-Took pieces as souvenirs
-Early roots of commercialism: drinking, gambling, prostitution, circuses
The Grand Tour:
-Travel was an essential part of a young man’s education
-Aristocratic young men in the presence of their tutors
Beginning of Modern Tourism:
-16th Century: Early origins of visiting family and friends
-17th-18th Century: Only upper class and elite could afford the time and money to travel
-19th Century: Rise of mass domestic tourism - seaside resorts during the industrial revolution, opened
up travel to multiple classes
-20th Century: Rise of missile class able to travel, mass tourism and package tours.
Rise of Seaside Resorts:
-Industrial revolution - escape of dirty, crowded factory cities to seaside resorts
-Regulated work hours, legislation to create public holiday. Increase in household income and leisure
-Began as upperclass/elite concept with other resorts designated to the more working-class
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