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Global Studies Final Exam Review (2).docx

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Global Studies
Timothy Clark

Global Studies Final Exam Review When, Where, What When: 12:00-2:00 Where: Athletic Centre What: Multiple Choice, Short Answer, Essay Question Topics of Focus  Steger Text o Discussion of Climate Change  The interdependence of people has never been more obvious than it is today however our dependence on the environment to maintain our wasteful lifestyles is at the forefront in today’s society  This is largely an issue we have created for ourselves in the past few decades where the speed, scale and depth of the earth’s environmental decline are unprecedented  With the explosion in population human demands have put severe pressure on the environment to produce, especially with the consumption levels in North America  The effects of overconsumption can be seen especially through the famines being experienced in Haiti and the Philippines  Additionally with the rising costs of oil and the diversion of food staples for other uses (energy) our production levels are even harder to maintain  Another concern of rapid population expansion is decreasing ecological diversity since the destruction of wetlands, and over farming soils has destroyed many ecological habitats  Additionally the chemicals used for farming have released toxins into the air including chlorofluorocarbons have depleted the ozone layer and had other negative environmental effects  Finally the aspect of climate change which is largely due to the emissions of greenhouse gasses that increase the earths capacity to trap heat increasing temperatures globally  It is expected that global temperatures will rise by an average of 3 degrees by the end of the century and the increased temperature could melt the polar ice caps causing sea levels to rise by about 90 cm  Economically many developing countries are reliant on agriculture for income which is the most sensitive to climate change  There is much debate about the severity of climate change and the best way to act on it and despite numerous treaties there has been very little change due to a lack of reinforcement  Many countries are against the proposals due to the fact that they slow economic growth  The US is seen in the world as taking little to no action on climate change and is mocked at many climate change conferences since they backed out of the Kyoto Protocol o Global Culture: Sameness or Difference  Orend o Environment  Environmental Pessimism  Believe that our population will soon exceed the earth’s carrying capacity o Seeing the earth’s resources as finite  Believe that the industrialization creates enormous amounts of pollution that the earth can’t withstand o In essence we are killing the thing that allows us to survive  They look specifically at the example of Easter Island where tribes had generation long wars and used resources up at such a rapid pace that they exceeded the carrying capacity o This resulted in the entire population being wiped out by either violence or starvation  Environmental laws are rarely enforced and are seen more as trophy laws  Many companies continue to pollute in different ways and greenwash their product to make the public believe otherwise  The diminishing resources available will limit our innovation  Environmental Optimism  Point to the bigger picture over a much longer period of time where a trend develops based on the sun heating up and cooling down  Believe that carbon dioxide doesn’t make up enough of the gases in the atmosphere and so industrialization isn’t the main contributor to global warming  By cutting back emissions in countries their endangering the economy of the world  Argue that with the ban of CFC’s in the developed world as a result of the Montreal Protocol, and now in much of the developing world that the ozone layer has begun to recover  Believe pessimists underestimate our ability to adapt, natures resilience, and our technological innovation  They believe everyone recognizes their stake in the environment and are doing their part through reduce, reuse, recycle programs and Earth Day  Countries have domestic government agencies whose sole purpose is helping the environment  Tragedy of the Commons  During the medieval times in England grazing area was public and because of this it became chewed up and useless very quickly meaning everyone lost  As a result the enclosure movement occurred causing the common areas to be divided up and sold to individual farmers o The land was then fenced off by these farmers to avoid nomadic grazing herds  This is shown in everyday life through un-owned areas such as the seas, near space, and Antarctica o UNCLOS created an internationally treaty that established responsibility for these un-owned areas that gave areas of the seas to countries based on location relative to their land referred to as exclusive economic zones o Anything outside this area remained international public area o Antarctica became an international ecological “park” in 1959 with the Antarctica Treaty  Oil  Oil use has been rising drastically since 1850 due to population growth and industrialization mainly  OPEC is a cartel made up of oil exporting countries and is considered to be one of the strongest in the world and controls the supply of oil and through this the price  Upon its formation it cut the supply of oil causing prices to skyrocket and created the first big oil crisis in Western Society o As a result the prices of other goods went up since many rely on oil for transportation causing stagflation in the economy (inflation without equal economic growth)  The oil crisis ended when OPEC decided that cutting the west off oil wouldn’t be positive in the long term  Peak oil theory suggests that we will reach a peak oil production level and from then on there will be less and less oil to extract despite more and more demand for it  Climate Change  Climate change has been linked to human activity by the following: o The burning of fossil fuels releases enormous amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere o Carbon dioxide acts as a greenhouse gas trapping sunlight in and below the atmosphere causing earth’s core temperature to rise o Since industrialization began there has been a steady increase in average global temperature  Consequences of Global Warming o Polar ice will melt into oceans reducing fresh water stores and rising sea levels will flood low lying coastal areas o The desertification of land and water scarcity will intensify o Extreme weather patterns, especially wind and rainstorms will grow o Diseases will increase as tropical diseases spread north o Warmer temperatures will allow insects and mould to spread o Some animals will become extinct with the flooding of their habitats, as well as many ecosystems themselves will become extinct o The consequences will be endless because of the numerous feedback loops within our ecosystems  Global Action o There have been numerous attempts to curb global warming, the most famous of them the Kyoto Protocol  This internationally treaty is seen as a failure since many of the developing countries want to use cheap energy to fossil fuels to industrialize themselves and OPEC countries want to continue to sell oil  Only developed societies like Europe are fully committed to curbing emissions  To gain the support of countries like Brazil and India some countries were exempt from the strictest policies of this treaty and the US said no to it because China was excluded from many of them despite being the largest emitter of greenhouse gases o Human Rights  Realizing Human Rights  In 1948 (3 years after discovering the Holocaust) the UN came to a unanimous decision to craft a declaration of human rights with the input of numerous countries around the world  Despite carrying no legal weight this was seen as a statement of intent and principle yet it is seen as the most influential human rights document of our time  Intentional violations of human rights occur when a country can but doesn’t respect human rights, unintentional occurs when they want to, but lack resources to  Human Rights Law  Two Treaties supported by either Soviet Russia or US during Cold War but e
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