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GS 101 Final Review session.docx

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Global Studies

GS 101 Final Review session Environment Market Based Solutions: Carbon tax- eg. Ecofees Cap-and-trade – Carbon is a commodity. Government sets a limit on industries to produce carbon. Either have to restrict or trade to make sure they are within the limit. It’s a llimit or cap on the amount of pollutant - limit or cap is sold to firms. Net primary production – How much energy a plant uses- how much energy plant produces National vs. Ecological Citizenship – rights and responsibilities to those within your state boundaries, ecological citizenship rights are responsibilities to all species and humans in global ecosystem. Biocentrism: nAll species with inherent value – ecological citizenship Anthropocentrism: Environment only for human use-other species only valuable if they can be used for human benefit – national citizenship – argument to protect the environment: protect the environment so humans can continue to live on it, “what if” argument that we may lose species that could be helpful to human lives. Malthusian Trap: Standard of living cannot increase when population grows exponentially due to technology, we have escaped the Malthusian trap due to industrial revolution and tapping of alternative energy sources, consequences of extracting these maytural resources (soil mining, deforestation, climate change, over-fishing, species extinction) – Anthropocentric because humans allowing this harm to environment because it is for human gain and needs (i.e increasing standard of living at the expense of the environment) Have we actually escaped it? Rich and poor getting richer so standards of living ARE increasing eg. China, Latin American Countries No because “Asian Bias”-Asian Countries do not reflect the entire world- still very poor conditions in many countries. Global Food System -Who benefits? Developed, Canada, US, MNCs, Green Imperialism- land grabbing (rich countries kick off poor communities from their land to produce goods on them- monocropping (producing one crop-takes same nutrients out of soil,ultimately reduces yield potential,soil mining,) Dependency Theory- Unfair terms of trade – boom bust cycles-primary commodity dependence (developing countries produce one raw good, developed countries manufacture and sell Income effects: As wealth increases, manufactured goods purchased at higher or same price while primary commodity price becomes cheaper therefore periphery countries losing out -Underdeveloped cheap land, cheap labor-cheap produce goods in developing countries -Overfishing and Meat Production: Unsustainable to have meat-based diets, meat and fish not efficient means of feeding population – use up more energy and land, GHG, cows produce majority of methane emissions, 50% of world’s grain fed to livestock -Mercantilism similar system present during colonialism- Environmental Optimism: Montreal Protocol- eliminate CFCs successful treaty, countries paid Brazil to stop deforestation, Debt-for-nature swap or carbon offsetting- TNCs social responsibility, NGOs-Greenpeace Technological Treadmill: Increasing technological inputs yet still problematic outcomes- since population increasing we never get anywhere- environmental pessimism- failure because continuously relying on fossil fuels or technology “technological utopianism” Environmental Pessimism: Greenwashing- TNC facades, Kyoto Protocol (international failure because US didn’t ratify-hinder development, China, India, Brazil exempt from strictest terms), Trophy laws Development Modernization Theory: Truman’s 4 Point Speech- support UN decisions, reconstruct Europe, protect against communism, use technology to develop underdeveloped countries. -Give money to rich people in developing countries because invest in high skilled jobs which will further economic development Rostows 5 stages of growth: 1. Traditional society. 2. Pre-conditions for Take-off. 3.Take-off 4. Drive to Maturity 5.High mass consumption eg. Canada -Kuznets Curve- Pre-industrial societies start with low inequality and low economic development, development requires inequality so money goes into hands of elite (financers, investors) so it will ne invested back in the economy vs. poor using money to buy primary needs, industrial society: inequality decreases while economy increases since money invested into the country. Structuralism (Latin American Structuralism) Raul Prebisch- primary commodity goods produced in developing country and manufactured by developed country and sold back to developing- primary commodity dependence -Unfair Terms of Trade: -Boom Bust Cycles: Countries depending on one export, if product price decreases economy will bust OR boom when commodity market price is high. -Income Effects -ISI (Import Substitution Industrialization)- produce own manufactured good within country, cut imports with tariffs and taxes, build up domestic industry to build up country’s economy-problems because closing off country is problematic. Similarities: -Apolitical (corrupt governments, money might be going into hands of elite) - Income and Industry best way to develop Dependency Theory -Neocolonialism: rich exploiting poor and benefitting from that, colonial relationship where rich controls poor countries through media (Monopoly- 8 TNC conglomerates controlling media), culture, common business practices -critiquing Modernization Theory - Core/Periphery: Core = rich, developed world, North America, Europe, Japan, Periphery: developing countries dependent on core Socialism: Equal rights and access to services, government directs and plans the economy (ISI?)- Asian Tiger Economies- formally planned various aspects of economies eg. Direct particular country to produce cars- breaking cycle o
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