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Department
Global Studies
Course
GS101
Professor
Ali Zaidi
Semester
Fall

Description
Ecological Globalization Part II Richard Swift-2008 price of oil rose, global food crisis, financial meltdown Food Sovereignty -Each country needs to prioritize its own agricultural potential rather than relying on trade controlled by global corporations -More emphasis on local and regional markets will make domestic consumers less subject to the manipulation of grain and rice prices Eco-Agriculture -Agriculture needs to be de-industrialized. The current high-tech approach is squandering soil fertility and a scarce water supply, turning what should be renewable resources into non-renewable ones. -We cannot afford another green revolution -Meat production takes up much of the worlds grains and this needs to come to an end Diet for a Smaller Planet -The world produces more than enough food for us all to thrive -Our food crisis, is not a crisis of scarcity -Hunger is caused by a scarcity of democracy living democracy in which everyone has a say in their own futures and in which, therefore, the right to lifes essentials, including food, is protected -A lot of our grain is going to cattle and we only get a tiny fraction of that The Blinders of Measurement -Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI) was developed in 1995, it uses the accounting framework of the GDP but adds in the economic contributions of household and unpaid work, while subtracting negatives like crime, pollution, and family breakdown Eating to Dream: A Tortilleria in Oaxaca - Itanoni has transformed itself into a structure that is based on a principle of food autonomy. Now in Europe and the U.S. people are working with the principle of local production -The tortilla: a point of contact between two worlds -People who produce and people who eat = contact point between two worlds -The way to communicate and to eliminate social differences...is through food. Food is in this respect a powerful space for dialogue and for recreating ourselves Global Food Crisis -Food is the new crisis -There is currently a famine in Somalia -When the price of food goes up, poverty increases -In 2010-2011 rising food costs pushed nearly 70 million people into extreme poverty Contemporary Case: Mexico, Corn -NAFTA signed in 1994 -Corn prices in Mexico fall as Canadian and U.S. corn displaces Mexican domestic production -Millions of poor Mexicans (and many others around the world) cannot afford their staple food -Corn producers in US are highly subsidized, Mexico producers are not -Increasing populations were dependent on the market for corn Famine and Malnutrition -Famine-an acute shortage of food, leading to starvation people die because they are not eating -Malnutrition (or undernutrition)-the long term shortage of calories, protein and more importantly, key vitamins and minerals not the right intakes of food, making people vulnerable to disease which leads to death -Famine makes the news, but malnutrition cuts more lives short, and leaves many others mentally, physically and economically stunted The Roots of Hunger? -The problem is oversimplified -Common causes of hunger: -Overpopulation -Environmental factors (drought and other sources of crop failure) -Poverty -Conflict -Alternative arguments: -What kind of overpopulation? And is there really not enough food to go around? -If environmental factors trigger famine, do they explain the underlying vulnerability to food shortages? -Does poverty alone cause malnutrition and famine, or is the problem inequality? -Conflict certainly disrupts food production and distribution, but what are the causes of such conflict? -If there was a drought in Canada it would be okay because Canada has purchasing power however if there was a drought in Somalia it would not be the same because they do not have purchasing power Technology and Big Capital to the Rescue -Green Revolution 1950s-70s hybrid seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, mechanization -Fertilizers are now synthetic -Need to spray in order to save all your crops -Hybrid seeds improved seeds that didnt regrow from itself -Biotech Revolution 1990s-present gene manipulation in conjunction with green revolution technologies -modify genes of plants What is Going On? Lappe and Lappe -Productivity gains have come through land concentration and industrialization, with a focus on export production, accompanied by growing rural and urban poverty. Ex. Brazil -Using the wrong indicators to understand global problems -For 60 years, Canadian Wheat Board has been in control of wheat and barley, and that got ended because it was unfair to those successful farmers and the smaller farmers that would go out of business -We only focus on increasing good it does not ensure people will get to eat Economies of Scale and the Demise of the Independent Farmer -Concentration of corporate control in food systems: Input/output licensing contracts -Government subsidies and research support the corporate model -Bigger is only better if you are a large farm and can afford it Cultural Globalization -The intensification and expansion of cultural flows across the globe -Language, music, and images assume special significance in the sphere of culture Global Culture: Sameness or Difference? -Pessimistic hyperglobalizers suggest that we are not moving toward a cultural rainbow that reflects the diversity of the worlds existing cultures -The spread of American popular culture seems to be unstoppable -American sociologist George Ritzer coined the term McDonaldization to describe the wide-ranging sociocultural processes by which the principles of the fast-food restaurant are coming to dominate more and more sectors of American society as well as the rest of the world -The generally low nutritional value of fast-food meals and particularly their high fat content has been implicated in the rise of serious health problems such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and juvenile obesity -A popular hyperglobalizer is American Benjamin Barber. He warns his readers against an ethos of infantilization that sustains global capitalism, turning adults into children through dumbed down advertising and consumer goods while also targeting children as consumers -Optimistic hyperglobalizers agree with their pessimistic colleagues that cultural globalization generates more sameness, but they consider it to be a good thing -Hardly any society in the world today posses an authentic self contained culture The Role of the Media -During the last two decades, a small group of very large TNCs have come to dominate the global market for entertainment, news, television, and film -American children at age 12 watch an average of 20 000 TV commercials a year, and 2-year-old toddlers have already developed brand loyalties The Globalization of Languages -Five key variables that influence the globalization of languages: Number of languages the declining number of languages in different parts of the world Movements of People people carry their languages with them when they migrate and travel Foreign Language Learning and Tourism facilitates the spread of languages beyond national or cultural boundaries Internet Languages The internet has become a global medium for instant communication and access to info International Scientific Publications the languages of global intellectual discourse -Today more than 80% of the content posted on the Internet is English st -Linguists predict that 50-90% of the currently existing languages will have disappeared by the end of the 21 century World Culture and the International Criminal Court (ICC) -The ICC expands international law, and marks a new commitment by the international community -The link between the ICC and world culture demonstrates that world culture is always at work in global governance and the ongoing expansion of global governance is always adding layers to world culture Global Imaginary -Global imaginary is the intensification of humanitys sense of belonging to one common community -It is a sense that we are living in a shrinking world -Reflected in: -Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) as a global set of values declares what humans have agreed to as a basic level of rights -International Criminal Court (ICC) promises a common, shared sense of justice and ethics a shared justice system that countries can sign onto What is Culture? -Institutionalized and patterned set of beliefs, values and behaviours -Aspects: beliefs, values, behaviours, artefacts, traditions -Has to be regulated in some way through institutions -a persistent concept that helps humans to answer the basic questions of life: Why are we here? Cosmopolitan Identity -Immanuel Kant: Cosmopolitanism means to cast aside local or parochial ties and be a citizen of the world -Cosmopolitanism-world culture as used by Steger old idea becoming citizens of the world -Cosmopolitan used to mean to be a member of the elite didnt have an option of being one or not -Because of cheap travel, and immigration it is easy to become a cosmopolitan and now there is a possibility of a global culture -Cosmopolitanism is not new, the fact that many of us can become cosmopolitans is new Global Institutions of Culture -Institutions are infused with particular cultures carry values -UDHR greatest forces for cultural integration today -Discrimination is prohibited through UDHR -We can all agree on the laws of justice ICC ICC is for crimes that are so bad that they need to be dealt with at a global level. USA is not a member of ICC. -US wont sign on because it will handicap them their actions could be held accountable and maybe its members would be trialed at it -Summits on th
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