Introduction to Globalization
A Definition of Globalization
-Globality signifies a social condition characterized by tight global economic, political, cultural, and
environmental interconnections and flows that make most of the currently existing borders and
-Globality might eventually be transformed into planetarity a new social condition brought about by
the successful colonization of our solar system.
Three assertions about globalization:
we are slowly leaving behind the condition of modern nationality that gradually unfolded
from the eighteenth century onwards
we are moving towards the new condition of postmodern globality
we have not yet reached it
-Global imaginary is a concept referring to peoples growing consciousness of belonging to a global
community. People need to look beyond their local culture for home and identity.
-Blind scholars all touched an elephant.
-They all felt different parts of it and therefore came to the conclusion that it was various things.
-This relates to globalization in the fact that you cannot look at is as a singular process.
-Each globalization expert is right in identifying one dimension, but it is also many other dimensions.
Characterization of Globalization
-Globalization involves the creation of the new and the multiplication of the existing, social networks
and activities that cut across traditional political, economic, cultural, and geographical boundaries.
-Expansion and stretching of social relations, activities, and interdependencies. Ex. Electronic trading
occurs around the clock.
-The intensification and acceleration of social exchanges and activities. Ex. Local happenings are shaped
by events occurring far away and close by due to the internet and the technological revolution. The local
and global intermingle messily with the national and regional in new horizontal scales.
A Short Definition of Globalization:
-Globalization refers to the expansion and intensification of social relations and consciousness across
world-time and world-space
-About continuity and change
-Technology only provides a partial explanation of globalization.
-Modern day technology has come from improvements on past technology.
-All researchers put a cap on how far they think globalization goes back.
The Prehistoric Period (10 000 BCE 3500 BCE)
-10 000 years ago humans took the step of producing their own food which changed human interaction.
-Over time food surpluses achieved by herders and farmers led to population increases, which established permanent villages
-For the first time, these farming societies were able to support two additional social classes
The Pre-modern Period (3500 BCE-1500 BCE)
-The diffusion of these new technologies (the wheel and writing) to distant parts of the continent
occurred within a few centuries.
-The wheel spurred infrastructural innovations such as permanent roads and animal drawn carts.
-Empires then came into existence. Due to their inventions, the Chinese empire was the most advanced.
The Early Modern Period (1500-1750)
-By the early 1600s national joint stock companies like the Dutch and British East India companies were
found for the purpose of setting up profitable overseas trade posts.
-As these posts grew, so did economic power and economic transactions
The Modern Period (1750-1970)
-By the late eighteenth century, Australia and the Pacific islands were slowly incorporated into the
-The volume of world trade increased dramatically between 1850 and 1914.
-These new technologies required electricity and gas.
-In the 20 century airplanes were established
-In 1866 the telegraph provided for instant exchange between the two hemispheres. This set the stage
for telephone and wireless radio communication
-All this advancement brought about a population explosion.
The Contemporary Period (From 1970)
-We will be studying globalization from the contemporary period, though keep in mind that these
processes started thousands of years ago.
Pre-history of Globalization
-Mass Migration-Vast amounts of people are moving and have been on the move in the past. The Bering
Strait was once frozen, and the continents joined and people moved.
-Cultural Interdependence-Occurred over time. Fusion food food from all around the world blending
together. One thing is developed in one place and then other places in the world take it up. Ex. the
wheel. Ex. the #0 was devised in India, Roman numerals do not have a zero
-Spread of Disease-Due to globalization. Someone sneezes in B.C. and someone in Tokyo gets sick. Ex.
Spread of SARS
-Series of routes from Europe to China
-Led to cultural integration. Took ideas and goods back with them
-Slaves, silk, satin, perfume were traded
-Marco Polo brought stuff back with him. Ex. pasta and gunpowder
-Took and brought knowledge, ideas, and goods
-Centre of the world, is no longer the centre of the world because of this sea route-Anthony Patudo travelled 3x more than Marco Polo but we do not know about him because we have a
European perspective of the world
European Expansion (1450-1640)
-Europeans travelled for these motivations:
East India Company
-Gap between promise and reality
-Gave up control to the British monarchy
-This is what we see now with companies and corporations Oil companies giving up to the Middle East
Dutch East India Company
-First multi-national corporation in the world
-So profitable 18% dividend for 200 years
Globalization as a Subjective Expe