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GS202 Midterm Review.doc

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Global Studies
Theresa Romkey

Global Studies 202 – Methods in Global Studies Section A (30 per cent): In this section, you will be asked to define and explain the significance for the study of methods in global studies of four (4) of six (6) terms, drawn from the following list: Relativism – an approach, which suggests that there is no single stand and measure of reality. Instead, the researcher who aims to understand and make sense of human action must seek to appreciate these from the cultural perspective of those that they observe Epistemology – how do we know that which we know is true, how we decide if something is true/ false, different forms of knowledge/ truth (belief bases), relative understanding (bias based), Bacon – we need methods to determine truth (don’t just accept tradition), we can get caught up in illusions (our senses can deceive us) Positivism – Comte- scientific methods adapted for social science (use objective methods to determine universal laws/ develop explanations – need to convince people they were scientists too), critiqued by post- structuralist theories, deductive reasoning, need to convince people that your new findings are truths (cultural acceptance/ politics of persuasion) Interpretivism- theoretical perspective that derives social processes (ex conflict, cooperation, identity formation) from human interaction, the study of how individuals act within society Emergent design – Cavallo- describes the theoretical framework for the implementation of systemic change in education and learning environments, examines the choice of design methodology Anonymity – changing names, etc to protect the identity of participants Agency- giving a voice to the participants (ex child prostitutes), the ability of people to act as individuals Structure – recurrent patterns and arrangements that limit an individuals’ choices Emic and Etic – emic – insider/ participant perspective (their definitions, what they think, their language) – etic – outsider/ your perspective (your definition) Informed Consent – when an informant agrees to participate in research while fully understanding their role and the implications it may have Deductive reasoning- observation pattern tentative hypothesis theory Participant-observation- observing the population in their natural events while participating in the community like any other member would (ex crack book) Verstehen – sympathetic understanding (put yourself in their shoes when doing research) connects to Weber Ethnocentrism- judging another culture solely by the values and standards of one’s own culture, especially with concern to language, behavior, customs and religion False consciousness- Marx- theory that material and institutional processes in capitalist society are misleading to the proletariat, and to other classes, these processes betray the true relations of forces between those classes and the development of pre-socialist society Hierarchy of credibility- those with the highest status often define the situation, assume people with status have the full story, less bias, etc, bottom of the social hierarchy- incomplete information, don’t have the skill to interpret things correctly, as researchers try to give a voice to those who are ignored- give individuals the opportunity to explain in their own terns how they experience and understand their lives, never assume the “best” information comes from experts Conflict of Interest Confidentiality Definition of the Situation – fundamental concept in symbolic interactionism (Thomas), a collective agreement between people on the characteristics of a situation and how to appropriately react and fit into it Breaching experiment - see ethnomethodology Sociological Imagination – Wright Mills- guide on how to think and manage large amounts of information, need to have basic skills but also develop an imaginative approach- having a broad view of the topic, being open to ideas, questioning ideas, playing with different ideas to see if links can be made, following ideas to see where they might lead – capacity to recognize the connection between individuals and their social context Key informant – individuals who the ethnography is focused on- main information/ correspondence from these people – be careful who you choose/ how that affects other informants, they interpret situations for a researcher, finding someone who is interested in your research and wants to help, returning to key informant for prolonged perspective/ information Field Research- natural environment observation rather than a controlled lab environment, intimate participation in the community, recording other people’s lives (ethnography- record, reflect on your observations), entering as fully as possible into the community/ everyday life, commitment to reciprocity (developing relationships/ sharing of information, share research findings, give their ideas a voice/ break stereotypes) Field notes- what (notes explaining what happened in the field), why (remember what happened for future reference), how often (after anything important happens/ whenever possible, trust that eventually a conclusion can be drawn, understand location/ description, always need permission) - multi-sited – understand the site in context of globalization, the region and how the sites connect (follow the word, question or people to different areas) Jottings (Lecture February 4 )th Gatekeeper – someone who needs to grant permission in order for research to happen (ex the state, a local leader or someone who has given themselves permission to be in charge), not always respected in the community, need to contact them to avoid offending the area Research Ethics- concerns/ dilemmas/conflicts that arrive over the proper way to conduct research, related to both the subject matter and the conduct of the research, ethical concerns are interwoven through every step of the methodology, ethical guidelines to determine researcher’s actions/ social borders Look-glass self – sense of self is a result of our perceptions of how others see us, we respond to the expectations other
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