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GS101 Study Guide - Final Guide: Anthropocentrism, Western Settlement, Biculturalism

Global Studies
Course Code
Timothy Clark
Study Guide

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Andrew Ferraro GS 101 April/9/2013
Global Studies 101
Final Exam Review
Readings For Final Exam
The Tragedy of the Commons
- When things are owner in common or are un-owned, the result tends to be a decline in
both the quality and quantity of the thing.
- When there is no one specifically to care for, and to pay the price for the decline of an
asset, that asset tends to fall apart or get completely used up.
- Major example of this would be the pacific garbage patch in the middle of the ocean,
this is in neutral ocean territory and therefore is owned by nobody and the
responsibility to clean this up falls on nobody as well.
- Leading members of OPEC include Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, UAE, Libya, Algeria,
and Qatar.
- Was founded by Arab states of the Persian Gulf region
Oil Crisis
- This was started by OPEC for mainly two reasons
o First, to increase the price of oil, thus generating more money for themselves
o Second, to punish the west especially the US for their ongoing support of
- The Oil Crisis ended for several reasons
o First, the West increased other sources of energy, notably nuclear
o The crisis also forced Western countries to devise and introduce measures to
conserve oil
o OPEC (especially Saudi Arabia) decided of its own accord to relax the price of
oil, realizing that it was in its own long-term interest not to turn the West
completely off oil, but rather, to keep it coming back for more

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Andrew Ferraro GS 101 April/9/2013
Easy vs. Difficult Oil
- Easy Oil
o Is oil that is readily available, cheap to extract and purify, and ready to go
- Difficult Oil
o Is oil that is remotely located (e.g. Offshore), expensive to bring out, laborious to
purify, and not at all ready to go, it needs to be processed
** Oil and Gas, which together account for nearly 90% of current world energy consumption**
Peak Oil Theory
- Is based on speculation about when oil production will reach its peak (or maximum
output), beyond which there will be less and less oil to extract, yet more and more
demand for it (owing to population growth and industrialization)
Climate Change
Kyoto Protocol (1997)
- This international treaty stands as a failure, much to the lament of environmentalists
- There is a very sharp North-South split on the issue. Developing nations in the Global
South especially India, China, and numerous African countries want to use cheap
fossil fuels to industrialize and grow their economies.
- OPEC countries obviously want to keep selling oil. Only societies that have already
become industrialized especially Europe seem committed to cutting greenhouse gas
emissions and reducing their dependency on oil and coal
Precautionary Principle
- Stipulates that if you’re unsure of whether a practise is safe – or if you think it might be
dangerous or polluting then, as a matter of prudence, you ought not to continue it.
- Thus, even if we are unsure about the effect of carbon emissions on Earth’s
temperature, we should cut back on burning fossil fuels in case this is contributing
significantly to global warming
Optimism vs. Pessimism
- The Montreal Potocol sets guidelines for restricting and then eliminating the use of
BFC’s in the developing world, CFC’s stopped being made in 1996, and this is almost true
today for the developing world too

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Andrew Ferraro GS 101 April/9/2013
- We have the reasons, the laws, the organizations, and the technology to develop a truly
sustainable society; it’s just a matter of finding the money, ingenuity, and political will to
bring it into being. This will be a difficult and ongoing-yet totally achievable-process.
- Trophy laws laws passé for reasons of public display that remain unenforced
- People only care about the environment when their lives are in order and are financially
set. In other words, it goes up when the economy goes up and it goes down when a
recession hits people prefer economic growth over environmental protection
- Pessimists fear that it simply can’t be done, and that in the future, we will be confronted
with a long list ferocious difficulties, including a skyrocketing population, global
warming, peak oil, stagflation, pollution, species extinction, resources scarcities
(especially food and water)
- and the dire miser and violent conflict that go with these
Human Rights
Realizing Human Rights
Human rights began as a moral idea, crafted by ethical activists, thinkers, an social reformers
who wanted to improve the way people treat each other and how they are treated by
Legal right
- Is a right that has been codified: this means it has been written into the law, and there
exists a concrete remedy (such as a fine) for cases in which it is violated
o For example, the rights of slave owning families in pre-Civil war America, or the
rights of white people during South Africa’s Apartheid era, when whites were
systematically separated from non-white people, with the latter, majority group
being treated in a clearly inferior and discriminatory way
Trophy Lawn
- Is a law that has been written and passed but does not get enforced and does not reflect
the reality on the ground; it has been created essentially for show
o An example is the constitution of the Soviet Union, drafted during the Cold War.
It is a document that aims to portray the USSR as a blissful utopia, not the bleak
military dictatorship it actually was
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