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GS101 Study Guide - Final Guide: World Health Organization, Social Environment, Tied Aid

Global Studies
Course Code
Edmund Pries
Study Guide

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Final Exam Review GS101
Concept Page Notes
Hard Power- A country with militaristic and economic strength and capabilities
(USA, China Russia) often have realist ideologies. Aggressive, the, forcing people to
think they way you think. If you dont think this way we will come in and change it.
Using force instead of persuasion and culture
Middle Power- usually north/west, developed and quite wealthy, lack the
population and military force to become a great power. (Canada)
Soft Power- refers to ones ability to get others to think the way one does (cultural
influence and values crucial here) ex: power of American television, news and
internet, the spread of languages. Represents the continuum of power in
international life (international influence).
Great Power: countries with the largest economies and militaries. Has great global
influence. USA, Russia. EU is close to if not more economically powerful then the
Small Powers: can be developed or developing, has a small degree of influence in the
world. To small to be a major player. (Chile, Czech Republic)
Rogue Regimes- Rogue is synonymous with undisciplined and deviant. Thought of
as bad international citizen. North Korea and Iron are rogue states. Basically
trouble makers, have nukes, support terrorist groups and act wildly.
Failed State- A country that has a existing government, but failed to provide the
basic necessities of life and basic needs of its people. Or complete lack of
governments in general. Somalia and sub Saharan African are examples ( little
access to clean drinking water)
Realist- view that the main objective is to advance its on national interests. Egoism
and selfishness Look out for number one Usually the US foreign policy
Idealist- View that your when dealing with others you do your part to better the
world, make world a richer, happier more secure place and so on. Unselfish
Realist Constrained/Unconstrained Theories
Unconstrained Maximizer-
Must always put your own interests at the forefront. Very obvious and direct with
what it wants. Demanding their way over and over again. I want this and I want it
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now Most countries are turn off by such policies but some undeveloped countries
have no choice. Can decrease ability to get what they want.
Constrained Maximization
Ones motives are hidden by behind negotiation and compromise. More tactful and
intelligent method, still fundamentally selfish. Honey attracts more flies then
Assurance Problem
The idea that each country can not trust each other because there is to much of a
divide with world views and cultures. No countries will see eye to eye because all
see differently. Overall you can only rely on themselves. Only smart foreign policy
is selfish foreign policy. (Very realist)
Small and Large scale Idealist
Small scale- believe in concrete and gradual improvements (international aid)
Gradually improvements attract large scale
Large scale- sweeping and more sudden shifts in international politics (creation of
UN) Large scale are harder to come by because such drastic change is needed.
The ideologies of Realists and Idealists are highlighted in the topic of National
Security VS Human security:
National security refers to security to one country and or group. It is about
strengthening the nation and providing security. To have strong military you must
-Large smart and healthy population
-Pro-business culture
-Increasing opportunities for company growth abroad
National security boils down to hard power, because you need a strong economy to
fund a strong security or military.
Human security is a much different notion of security. It is much broader and more
inclusive group. Believe what makes people secure is having resources and
opportunities to pursue the things they want rather then a large military force.
Idealists believe you human security entails:
-Healthcare spending
-Education Spending
-Growing a healthy economy to provide for social programs.
Idealist Multilateralism
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(Response to Assurance problem)
They believe countries should take a multilateral (many sided) approach to
international problems. Basically working with others to deal with problems rather
then by yourself. Supporting the UN and upholding national law instead of putting it
into your own hands.
Diplomacy-Persuading a country to adopt your view and act accordingly. Involves
talking, lobbying and negotiation.
To do this you can Use Positive and Negative Incentives (Carrot and the Stick) which
are tactics to gain leverage on another country and influence them to do what you
Positive Sanction
The carrot disguised as a bribe, more indirect promise of financial gain
Make deals that are mutually profitable
Negative Sanction
Imposing fines, refusing trade, freezing assets. Imposing economic sanctions
-is a way of stepping it up a notch in terms of displeasure and hostilities. Shows
one is moving way form positive to negative incentives, threats, non cooperation,
deliberate attempts you believe will thwart the interests of the other country.
Targeted Sanctions
Aimed at hurting the elite decision makers, punishment or non cooperation.
Pushing negative actions upon the elite
Sweeping Sanctions
Are such measures just targeted at the citizens of a country ex: trade embargo
-Was created in the aftermath of WW2 and the Holocaust, was created to prevent
world war 3.
The United Nations is made of many parts and branches:
World Court, Security Council, General Assembly, secretariat and Economic social
Council are the main branches.
GA (General Assembly)
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