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All Notes up to Midterm This is all my notes up to midterm. Classes I didn't attend I received lecture notes from someone else, so hopefully no lectures are mssing. I tried to write as much of the important stuff she was saying, so I'm quite sure my notes

Course Code
Alicia Mc Kenzie
Study Guide

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HI 101 Lectures (Up to the Midterm)
The Late Roman Empire: A Flawed Collossus (21-25)
476 Not the end of the Roman culture
Rivers are critically important in Roman times
More convenient to do everything
2 important- - Danube, Rhine Northern borders of roman empire
The Empires Structural Flaws
Distance and Communication
Empire too large for orders to be sent across
How do you govern an empire when you can’t send messages?
Dependence on civitas-unit
Municipalities as basic governmental cells
Each governed themselves
Expense of the Army
Phenomenal amount of money spent
Had to be able to redirect troops
Complex and abuse-prone taxation system
Decurions became tax collectors
Were the ones who collected taxes, Decurions made up shortfall of tax money from civitas
Awful job
Dominance of Aristocracy in the west
States were larger, too much power
Development of patronage empires
The Third-Century Crisis
External Threats

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Persians, Rhine Frontier “Barbarians”
Tribal units, east=centralized monarchy (equal to Rome)
Devaluing of coinage
Coin worth as much as it weighed
Military Emperors
Conflict with Aristocracy
Army produced own emperors, lower than aristocracy
Debasement of Coinage
Political Fragmentation
Gallic Empire (260-273)
Formed when Germanic people raided Spain
Local regimes fill gap of empires
Emperor would have to delegate
Diocletian (d.305) and the tetrarchy
Four Emperor System
2 Senior Emperors (Augustus)
2 Juniors (Caesars)
Equal responsibility
Human nature=self interested
Reorganization of army, provinces
Divided civil authority
Expanded provinces
Edict of Prices
Setting maximum prices for military equipment
Reform of Coinage
Anti Dynastic can’t pass on to heirs
Dependent on goodwill
Didn’t survive past 2nd Generation
Constantine (d.337) and the 4th Century Empire

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Victor in post-tetrarchy civil wars
Christian Convert
Constantinople (330)
Conversion of Christianity
Christian city
Closer to the action
Reorganization of prefectures
Maintenance of field army
Permanent standing army
Had military power
Constantinean Society and its challenges
Bosilica perfect for Christian usage
Agricultural crisis
Demands of urban provisioning
Had to support army and bureaucracy
Food shipped into the cities
Freezing of society
Guilds, municipal councillors
Bakers important
Not allowed to change jobs if you are in a protected occupation
Creates social stress
One of the empires biggest mistakes
Dynastic and civil conflict after Constantine’s death
Magnetius overthrew Constance. Local ruler
Tolerant of pagans and Christians
Sons ruled empire
After the Constantinean Dynasty
Julian: Brief sole rule (361-363)
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