[HI109] - Final Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (26 pages long)

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29 Mar 2017
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HI109
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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HI 109 Lecture 1
Dr. Friesen
Jan 9/17
The Long Twilight: Europe before the Great War, 1900-1914
What is Europe? How were borders defined? When and Why? The questions it raises?
Where does the word Europe even come from?
o Greek mythology; perhaps setting of the sun, or pasture land
o Greeks deemed Europe negatively akin to a dark continent
Europe in the World
The smallness of Europe contributes to many of their advances in the 15th and 16th
centuries
The notion of competition is more pronounced due to the segregation of villages because
of the mountains
Beyond maps, what is to be said about Europeans culture by 1900?
How might we summarize 400 million people, give or take?
Can we reduce Europe to a single people?
o Our Answer: European society by 1900 was becoming modern society
o The course of the 20th century Europe will engage in 3 variants of modernization:
Nazi, Communist, Liberal
* Liberal capitalism, socialism, conservativism
What does modern mean “now”?
What is gained? What is lost?
Is it good, bad, or neither?
Is there such a thing as truth?
What for example is the role of religion in such a society?
“The adjective ‘Modernity’ possessed a protean character” Jarausch (3)
Characteristics of the European world and almost everywhere else in 1500
Natural world people were seen as habing a place in a meaningful created cosmos,
pointed to divine purpose
God was similarly present in all aspects of human society
The scientific revolution world as a “thing” to be exploited and used. Part of it, triumph
of technology and people as resources with rocks and oil
Religion became a personal matter only and of secondary importance to the secular and
tension with pre-modern faiths which do not accept that religion is purely personal
The rise of the modern individual which trumps community (emergence of capitalism in
industry) the discovery of self
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Sigmund Freud (1856 1939) and discovery of psychoanalytical theory and what it said
about the individual
The rise of nation states governed by political leaders who may or may not be religious.
These states maintain monopoly of force, which gives rise to modern armies (tension w
rule of law)
Europe as an advanced society, and then there was everyone else; though no system
governs European states (for conflict resolution)
The rise of Nationalism in Europe after 1800 (and what empires are threatened by it?)
Danger of nationalism plus social Darwinism
o Survival of the fittest, which was applied to societies by Herbert Spencer
o National identities are created
European Struggle for mastery of Europe
France on the outs after Napoleon bid for European mastery (1815)
Great Britain was dominant naval empire and home industrialization
Russia is a dominant landed power but hardly a modern state
Germany does not exist as unified whole
Hapsberg empire dominant in south western Europe
What has changed by 1817?
German “unification”
o Prussia conquers the German lands
o Then conquers the French
Declaration of German in the Hall of Mirrors, Versailles (Jan. 18,1871)
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Document Summary

The long twilight: europe before the great war, 1900-1914. Where does the word europe even come from: greek mythology; perhaps setting of the sun, or pasture land, greeks deemed europe negatively akin to a dark continent. The smallness of europe contributes to many of their advances in the 15th and 16th centuries. The notion of competition is more pronounced due to the segregation of villages because of the mountains. Can we reduce europe to a single people: our answer: european society by 1900 was becoming modern society, the course of the 20th century europe will engage in 3 variants of modernization: The adjective modernity" possessed a protean character jarausch (3) Characteristics of the european world and almost everywhere else in 1500. Natural world people were seen as habing a place in a meaningful created cosmos, pointed to divine purpose. God was similarly present in all aspects of human society.

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