HI109 Study Guide - Final Guide: Rudolph Valentino, Arditi Del Popolo, Anti-Capitalism

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10 Dec 2020
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HI109 Lecture 1 Notes
Jaruasch’s (the author of Out of Ashes) argument
- Turn of century
- Spirit of optimism, hope for future, belief in “progress”
- WWI Catastrophe
- Fundamental challenge to faith in progress
- Post WWI to WWII
- Regression into barbarism
- Post WWII
- Out of ashes|recovery
- 20th Century as a whole: Battle between versions of modernity(communist, fascist,
democratic capitalist)
- Jarausch on “modernity”
- Change, departure from previous era, innovation, newness
- Search for progress, improvement
- Protean quality: creative or destructive | civilization vs barbarism
- Protean means ever-changing, not static
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LECTURE 2: EUROPE TO 1918
January 10, 2019
EUROPE TO 1918
Characterizing Europe to 1914
THE MAJOR PLAYERS
- +400 million (including Russia)
- 1.7 billion
- Government types
- UK
- Stability
- France
- Franco-Prussian War 1870 → French Republic 1871
- Italy | 1861
- Socio-political problems
- German Empire | Kaiserreich |1871
- New, late & Powerful
- Austria-Hungary (Habsburgs Empire)
- Ausgleich 1867; Multi-ethnicity: 22 million out of 50 million
- Took the form of Austria-hungary
- Ausgleich represents compromise between austrian germans and
hungarians
- Majority were slavic, croatian, czech, poles, western ukrainians
- Russian Empire
- Absolutism | Tsar, “backwardness”
- Giving power to elites, middle-classes
- Russia develops reputation of being socially, economically backward
(affecting Russia in WWI)
TRENDS TO 1914
- Europe is “modernizing”-change!
- People are looking for innovation, progressiveness
- Europe in 1800 is vastly different from 1900
- Expansion of state
- Education, literacy, language standardization
- Press → politics
- Politicians must be accountable for their actions
- Health & welfare
- Safety, sanitation, child mortality <
- Bureaucracies | civil service
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- Diversification social structures
- Elites
- Middle class (bourgeoisie)
- Economic power
- Push for > democratization
- Peasant
- Russia 1861
- emancipated
- Working Classes/ proletariat (rise of working classes)
- Industrialization
- Trade unions
POLITICS
- Variety & Growth
- Conflict & Competition
- Political parties
- Groups, interests, values & classes
- Property, income, power, status, culture
DOMINANT POLITICAL FORCES OF THE PERIOD
Liberalism
- Middle class
- “The government that governs least governs best”
Conservatism
- Supported by elites and poor people
- Favoured tradition, ties to churches, nationalism, empire, state intervention
Socialism
- New; industrialization
- Their ideas shape trade unions
Nationalism
- Bases for inclusion & exclusion; ethnicity, language, history and memory
- Categorization
- Antisemitism & racism (& social determination)
- Imperialism
- Militarism
INDUSTRIALIZATION
- England
- Has the availability of water, coal
- Regional | proceeds at uneven pace
- Urbanization
- Population explosion
- Germany 1880: 45 million | 1914: 68 million
- Agricultural revolution; mechanization of agriculture
- Rural overpopulation → land pressures → cities
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Document Summary

Jaruasch"s (the author of out of ashes) argument. Spirit of optimism, hope for future, belief in progress . 20th century as a whole: battle between versions of modernity (communist, fascist, democratic capitalist) Change, departure from previous era, innovation, newness. Protean quality: creative or destructive | civilization vs barbarism. Ausgleich 1867; multi-ethnicity: 22 million out of 50 million. Ausgleich represents compromise between austrian germans and hungarians. Majority were slavic, croatian, czech, poles, western ukrainians. Russia develops reputation of being socially, economically backward (affecting russia in wwi) Europe in 1800 is vastly different from 1900. Politicians must be accountable for their actions. Working classes/ proletariat (rise of working classes) Favoured tradition, ties to churches, nationalism, empire, state intervention. Bases for inclusion & exclusion; ethnicity, language, history and memory. Germany 1880: 45 million | 1914: 68 million. Rural overpopulation land pressures cities. Political solutions to negative effects of ir. Long term: industrialization, growth of nationalism, social darwinism, imperialism.

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