HI121- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 28 pages long!)

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30 Nov 2017
School
Department
Course
WLU
HI121
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Lecture 1
Accessing the Ancient world
September 12 2017
Central problems:
Archeology vs History
o Grey area arguments
o Both use different tools
o Hard to be interdisciplinary
Material culture interpreted in different way than written sources
o Try looking at both in fluid way
Limitations of written sources
o Case in point: irrigation on the nile
Law anyone building irrigation canal their should be killed
Nile floods each year giving nutrients for crops
Irrigation limits this
If food riots occur due to no flooding by the canal then emperor in the city
is in danger
Therefore don’t create irrigation canals
Source Survival
o Scholarly sub disciplines
Deal with specific subjects
Papyrology: epigraphy
Study of papyrus. Study of enscription
Palaeolithic(old stone age)
Direct human ancestry
Pre-10000 BCE
Mesolithic (mid stone age)
Hunter-gatherer, modern climactic conditions
9600BCE-?? (ends with the cultural
development of agriculture)
Neolithic (new stone age)
farming
9th 6th millennium BCE (later in some
areas) development of bronze working
Bronze Age
Late 4th/early 3rd millennium BCE
8th-5th century BCE?
Iron Age
14th 8th century BCE written tradition
This way of categorizing is based on technology
o Not very accurate
Writing, dating, other key concepts
End of prehistory = beginning of writing?
o Problem of oral tradition: Incan quipo
Cannot be accessed unless you know the oral tradition
Dating types
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Lecture 1
Accessing the Ancient world
September 12 2017
o Relative: seriation; stratigraphy
Create a chronological order
o Absolute: scientific methods (radiocarbon dating, dendrochronology);
written documents and astronomy
Things to remember:
Terminology/periodization is in flux, constantly debated, no ‘one size fits all’
Interdisciplinary approach essential
Flush Toilets of Bronze Age
Topic 1
Proto urban centres
o Neolithic building blocks; shrines, house, cistern, public building
Information about ancient cities:
o Surviving buildings; monuments and documents about monuments; ancient
written source
Jericho(from 9000BCE)
o Objects made from obsidian
No obsidian local, so they traded
Cayonu(pre-5000BCE)
o Metal workers
Catalhoyuk, right(6500-5500BCE)
The rise of Uruk (4000 5500 BCE)
First ‘real’ city
Population growth due to agricultural growth
Discovered by sir William loftus
Not one city but multiple on top
Expanded 81 to 210 hectares
Ecological niches
o Good irrigation
o Livestock and hunting
Specialized jobs
o New plow created
o Specialization among producers= less self sufficiency
Developed a system of exchange
Specialist craftsmen
More sophisticated economy
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Document Summary

If food riots occur due to no flooding by the canal then emperor in the city is in danger: source survival, therefore don"t create irrigation canals, scholarly sub disciplines, deal with specific subjects, papyrology: epigraphy, study of papyrus. 9600bce-?? (ends with the cultural development of agriculture) 9th 6th millennium bce (later in some areas) development of bronze working. 14th 8th century bce written tradition: this way of categorizing is based on technology, not very accurate. Writing, dating, other key concepts: end of prehistory = beginning of writing, problem of oral tradition: incan quipo, cannot be accessed unless you know the oral tradition, dating types. September 12 2017: relative: seriation; stratigraphy, create a chronological order, absolute: scientific methods (radiocarbon dating, dendrochronology); written documents and astronomy. Things to remember: terminology/periodization is in flux, constantly debated, no one size fits all". Topic 1: proto urban centres, neolithic building blocks; shrines, house, cistern, public building.

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