HI206 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Saint Petersburg, Proletariat, Grigory Zinoviev

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8 Feb 2016
HI206 Midterm
Petrograd Politics and Economics in 1917:
City largely industrial. Workers begin to take over the city
Ultimately leads to the February revolution
February Revolution
Uprising led by the Petrograd workers against the Tsar after rationing introduced. Demand
better working and living conditions as well as political representation for workers.
Leads to abdication by the Tsar and the creation of the “Dual Power” structure
Tsar’s Abdication:
Tsar gives up absolute power after soldiers refuse orders to fire on protesters and after
provisional government refuses to allow him to return to Petrograd
Leads to a short period of constitutional monarchy with Prince Lvov as head of state
Dual Power (March-June 1917)
Power shared between Prince Lvov and the Duma
Period of relative calm
Women enter politics, universities remain largely unchanged, Orthodox Church continues to
wield great influence, beginning of Ukrainian independence movement
Peasants during 1917:
Initially jubilated that Tsar is gone. Agree to cooperate with provisional government
All-Peasant Union formed in summer 1917
Peasants beginning to gain power
Order Number 1:
Decree by Petrograd Soviet
Agrees to cooperate with provisional government, however states that workers should obey the
Soviet before the government
April Theses:
Lenin’s thoughts on the current state of Russia and his plans for the future of Russia
Peace, Bread, Land end war, continue revolution,
Calls it the first stage of revolution
Calls war an imperialist war and calls for immediate end to fighting
Social Revs and Mensheviks in 1917:
More moderate socialists who do not believe in permanent revolution
Largely control the Petrograd Soviet in 1917
Support the provisional government and the war
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Bolsheviks in 1917:
Fringe group within the Petrograd Soviet
Distrust the provisional government and believe revolution should continue
Want to end the war as they see it as an imperialist war
Provisional Government:
Essentially a constitutional monarchy
Power shared between Prince Lvov and the Duma
Duma made up of elites largely appointed by the Tsar
Few representatives for the workers/peasants
Want to continue with the war effort
June Offensive:
Planned by Alexander Kerensky to try and turn the tide in WWI and rally support for the war
Catastrophe 400,000+ casualties and army collapses
Leads to more anti-war protests, led by the Bolsheviks
Alexander Kerensky:
Part of the Social Revolutionary Faction
Vice-Chair of Petrograd Soviet
Become Minister of War under Provisional Government
Plans the failed June Offensive
Appoints Kornilov as commander-in-chief which emboldens his rebellion
July Days:
Spontaneous revolt by soldiers and workers against provisional government
Bolsheviks initially opposed (voted to ban street prostests) but then supported after Lenin
demanded all power to the workers and Bolsheviks
Social Revs and Mensheviks refuse to seize power
Chants of All Power to the Soviets
Revolt is ultimately crushed and it seems Bolsheviks are defeated
Lenin did not trust spontaneity and so originally did not support the rev. He wanted to control
and organize it
Kornilov Revolt:
Attempted coup by Gen. Kornilov in August 1917
Ultimately fails and is imprisoned. Escapes and leads a volunteer army during Civil War
Considered at the time to be a “right-wing” conspiracy as said by Kerensky
Some believe Kerensky and Kornilov were in cahoots (Kerensky appointing Kornilov
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