HI346- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 69 pages long!)

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28 Mar 2018
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HI346
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Thursday, September 7, 2017
Lecture 1: Sources
HI346G Dr. Kroeker
How do we know what we think we know about Alexander?
-Primary Sources
Definition: Ancient sources which are contemporary with the events they report. eg.
Thucydides and the Peloponnesian War
Extant Primary Sources
Summary: Many excellent primary sources but none survive!
-NOTE; also Ephemerides (journals) of Eumenes which are often thought to be a forgery
of some sort, which are often quoted re: The Death of Alexander
-Secondary Sources MISSING UP TO SLide 12
Definition: Non-contemporary sources, both ancient and modern. It is the ancient secondary
sources we are most interested in here
General Issues
-Time between primary and secondary sources: ~ 300 years
People in a different mindset after that much time has passed, only way to copy a book
was by hand and many mistakes may happen by doing this
-Quality of Primary source used
How good were the primary sources that were used? Often you don't know what
primary sources were used, they may give a foot note is something unusual happens in
the account they are using.
Many times the author of the primary source is only mentioned if they are switching
from the original primary source to another
-Use of Primary Sources: Accurate? Judicious?
Secondary authors may corrupt their primary source or follow it very closely
The Big Five
!1
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Thursday, September 7, 2017
-Diodorus Siculus’ universal history: Book 17 dedicated to Alexander (second half of the
1st century BC); War Monograph: writing about a specific war. Herodotus and
Thucydides are the first two famous Greek historians, they did this. Xenophon picked up
on a continuous history of where Thucydides left off. Universal history - They history of
everyone and everything
Was not an overarching fact that ancient historians got their story right; Diodorus
Siculus’ introduction says he chose the stories which were the most educative and
showed divine providence in the life of Alexander
Main source for Alexander: Cleitarchus
Purpose:
-Exemplary education
-Illustrate divine providence
-Tends to emphasize unique greatness of Alex
-Q. Curtius Rufus (first century AD)
Wrote a life of Alexander based on Cleitharchus, but also supplemented with other
primary sources (especially Ptolemy)
Sometimes thought highly rhetorical, sometimes judicious
-Justin (ca. 200AD)
Epitomator of Pompeius Trogus’ universal history, which used Cleitharchus mainly for
Alexander, section (therefore one of the “vulgate” authors)
Highly moralistic, though preserves much that is good from Trogus
-Most scholars don’t like Justing but they believe Trogus made good points
-“I have extracted, during the leisure that I enjoyed in the city, whatever was most
worthy of being known; and, rejecting such parts that were neither attractive for the
pleasure of reading nor, necessary by way of example”
-Plutarch
Used a number of primary sources for his biography of Alexander
!2
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Document Summary

Primary sources: definition: ancient sources which are contemporary with the events they report. eg. thucydides and the peloponnesian war, extant primary sources, summary: many excellent primary sources but none survive! Note; also ephemerides (journals) of eumenes which are often thought to be a forgery of some sort, which are often quoted re: the death of alexander. Secondary sources missing up to slide 12: definition: non-contemporary sources, both ancient and modern. It is the ancient secondary sources we are most interested in here: general issues. Time between primary and secondary sources: ~ 300 years: people in a different mindset after that much time has passed, only way to copy a book was by hand and many mistakes may happen by doing this. Judicious: secondary authors may corrupt their primary source or follow it very closely, the big five. Diodorus siculus" universal history: book 17 dedicated to alexander (second half of the. 1st century bc); war monograph: writing about a specific war.

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