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All Notes up to Midterm This is all my notes up to midterm. Classes I didn't attend I received lecture notes from someone else, so hopefully no lectures are mssing. I tried to write as much of the important stuff she was saying, so I'm quite sure my notes

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Alicia Mc Kenzie

HI 101 Lectures (Up to the Midterm) The Late Roman Empire: A Flawed Collossus (21-25) 476 Not the end of the Roman culture Rivers are critically important in Roman times More convenient to do everything 2 important- - Danube, Rhine Northern borders of roman empire The Empires Structural Flaws Distance and Communication Empire too large for orders to be sent across How do you govern an empire when you cant send messages? Dependence on civitas-unit Municipalities as basic governmental cells Each governed themselves Expense of the Army Phenomenal amount of money spent Had to be able to redirect troops Complex and abuse-prone taxation system Decurions became tax collectors Were the ones who collected taxes, Decurions made up shortfall of tax money from civitas Awful job Dominance of Aristocracy in the west States were larger, too much power Development of patronage empires The Third-Century Crisis External Threats Persians, Rhine Frontier Barbarians Tribal units, east=centralized monarchy (equal to Rome) Inflation Devaluing of coinage Coin worth as much as it weighed Military Emperors Conflict with Aristocracy Army produced own emperors, lower than aristocracy Debasement of Coinage Political Fragmentation Gallic Empire (260-273) Formed when Germanic people raided Spain Local regimes fill gap of empires Emperor would have to delegate Diocletian (d.305) and the tetrarchy Four Emperor System 2 Senior Emperors (Augustus) 2 Juniors (Caesars) Equal responsibility Human nature=self interested Reorganization of army, provinces Divided civil authority Expanded provinces Edict of Prices Setting maximum prices for military equipment Hoarding Reform of Coinage Problems Anti Dynastic cant pass on to heirs Dependent on goodwill Didnt survive past 2 Generation th Constantine (d.337) and the 4 Century Empire Victor in post-tetrarchy civil wars Licinius Christian Convert Constantinople (330) Conversion of Christianity Christian city Closer to the action Reorganization of prefectures Maintenance of field army Scholae Permanent standing army Had military power Constantinean Society and its challenges Bosilica perfect for Christian usage Agricultural crisis Demands of urban provisioning Had to support army and bureaucracy Food shipped into the cities Freezing of society Guilds, municipal councillors Bakers important Not allowed to change jobs if you are in a protected occupation Creates social stress One of the empires biggest mistakes Dynastic and civil conflict after Constantines death Magnetius overthrew Constance. Local ruler Tolerant of pagans and Christians Sons ruled empire After the Constantinean Dynasty Julian: Brief sole rule (361-363) Wanted paganism back Moved court away from Constantinople Would-be Alexander the Great Died fighting the Persians Resumption of dual role Valentinian and Valens Theodosius I Made Christianity Official Religion Conclusions Empire was too big Challenges impossible to overcome A lot of civil war The army was necessary but dangerous What happens if army revolts No one can stop the army Important for emperor to have guard Conflict between classes Frozen in jobs Aristocracy interested in local affairs, not the empire From Persecution to Triumph: Christianity and the Roman Empire (25-32) Roman Religion Polytheistic Lots of gods No religious exclusivity Juno, patroness of marriage
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