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HI109 Study Sheet - Final.rtf

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Robert Hanks

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Student Generated Study Guide HI 109, 2013 Identification Study Suggestions: Ideologies: Social Darwinism: The belief that conflict between groups in society lead to social progress as superior groups outcompete inferior ones - Scientific ideas were corrupted by social theorists - Made assumption that each nation was a different species - "Survival of the fittest" Liberalism: Principal concern in early 19th century was to protect the rights of the individual against the demands of the state - Advocated a constitution that limited the state’s authority; Bill of Rights - Believed that state interference in the economy endangered individual liberty and private property; strong advocates of laissez-faire - Approved property requirements for voting and office holding to prevent the uneducated and unpropertied from fucking everything up - Typical Liberals: - Self-made, professional men (lawyer, doctor, etc.) - Opposed both socialism and absolute monarchy - Working class + monarchy should not have too much power - Thought the RCC was medieval and backwards - Believed in nation self-determination; every nation should have it’s own state - Many supported imperialism - Most assumed Europe was superior - Challenges to Liberalism: - Militant nationalism - Nationalism = democracy, but got more militant throughout the years - After school, went off to military - Social Darwinism - *See above* - Cultural pessimism: Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) - “‘Progress’ is merely a modern idea, that is, a false idea” - Attacked religion; “God is dead” - Christianity was a sign of decadence and weakness - Attacked rationality, democracy, nationalism, socialism - Humans were stupid, corrupt and materialistic - Old values were dead and new ones needed to come into to play - Called for a new race of supermen - Supermen: Poets, philosophers, etc. who would create new values to create a society that was pure and stronger, not decadent and corrupt - Appealed to young idealists who were looking for something better in life - Ideas influenced fascism; impact on Hitler and Mussolini - Radical socialism Fascism: Seek to unify nation through totalitarian state that promotes mass mobilization of a community - Hitler & Mussolini are two major fascist leaders - Hitler, more than Mussolini, pushed to establish a totalitarian state that controlled all phases of political, social and cultural life - Saw themselves as dedicated idealists engaged in a heroic struggle to rescue their nations from domestic and foreign enemies; aspired to reclaim lands lost by their countries in WWI or acquire lands denied by the Paris Peace Conference - Shared a hatred of liberalism, democracy, and communism; glorification of the party leader; a commitment to aggressive nationalism - When - Movements arose in Italy, Germany and many other European countries - Leaders cleverly utilized myths, rituals and pageantry to mobilize and manipulate the masses - The memory of WWI, the rise of fascism and the economic distress accompanying the Depression profoundly disoriented the European mind - Some, having lost faith in the core values of Western civilization, turned their backs on it - Glorified instinct, will and blood as true forces of life; attacked ideals of reason, liberty and equality - German fascism taught racial mythology that preached the superiority of the German race and the inferiority of others - The rise of fascism was impacted by: 1. The fear of communism among the middle and upper class 2. The disillusionment of WWI veterans and the mood of violence bred by the war 3. The inability of democratic parliamentary governments to cope with the problems that burdened postwar Europe Nazism: A form of socialism featuring racism and expansionism and obedience to a strong leader - The Dawes Plan (1924) - Formulated to take Germany out of hyperinflation and return economic stability after the signing of the Treaty of Versailles - Wall Street Crash (October 1929) - Turning point of Nazi party - International trade dropped 60% - 6 million unemployed in Germany - Half of Germany’s families required social assistance - Who voted for the Nazis - White collar middle class who feared becoming lower or working class - Small craftsmen competing against big businesses - Protestants - Workers outside of trade unions (agricultural workers) - Professors and students - Who didn’t support the Nazis - People in big cities and industrial areas (Berlin) - German Catholics - Franz Von Papen - Aristocrat - Represented interests of big industry land owners - Aristocrat gov’t was not popular; enlisted help of Nazi’s - Plan was to hold as many elections as possible so the Nazi’s would be broke and forced to do his biding - Kurt Von Schleicher - Tried to detach the left wing of the Nazi party - Hitler became enemy as a result - Hitler became chancellor of Germany in 1933 because of the dispute between the two men - Shows that the rise of Hitler was not inevitable - Gliechshaltung: “Coordination;” taking over the government bit by bit - The Reichstag Fire, 1933 - Marinus van der Lubbe (Dutch communist) burned down parliament building - Led to lots of hatred from people towards communists - Hitler took this change to seek emergency power from Hindinberg - The “Brown Revolution” - The Presidential Decree for the Protection of Folk and State, 1945 - Political people could be arrested - Already controlled the police - The Enabling Act, 1933 - Gave Hitler permanent emergency power - Cult of personality - Arises when an individual uses mass media, propaganda or other methods to create a god-like, heroic and idealized public image of themselves - Ex. Hindenburg, Hitler, Stalin, Churchill - People wanted a strong man to solve problems - German’s wanted a German version of Napoleon - Religion & Nazism - Pope Pius XI (Pope at the time) - Made a deal with papacy - The Vatican preferred to make deals with political parties rather than use their own political party - Made it easier to gain social acceptance amongst numerous political groups rather than just one or two that shared same beliefs - Pope agreed to removal of the centre party - Hitler was a social Darwinist; believed that Christianity was a weakness - Catholics feared communism more than they did fascism - German Protestants - More receptive to Nazism than Catholics - German Protestants had a long tradition of service to the state - Martin Luther said that rulers are appointed by God and that they should trust them - Ernst Rohm - Wanted to take the Nazi revolution to its natural extreme by purging aristocrats - Wanted to make business a national thing - The army and big businesses wanted extremists gone; after thinking it over, he sided with the army - The Schutzstaffel (SS) - The Night of the Long Knives (June 29/30, 1934) - The SS, with the help of the army, killed 100 prominent opponents to the regime - Sent out the message to others that opposed Hitler’s beliefs - Created the army as one of the pillars of Nazism; never in German history has the army been so closely associated with a political party - Hitler removed Generals Blomberg and Fritsch - Unsure about Hitler’s idea to expand Germany - Fired one on the grounds that he married a prostitute and the other was a homosexual - January 1938 - Hitler was unable to control the army because of the actions he took and the fear of communism - Also bribed his generals by giving them large amounts of money on their birthdays - Ostracizing of Jews - 600,000 German Jews - Removed Jews from civil servant jobs and education jobs - Less than 1% of the population - The Nuremburg Laws (1935) - Boycotting of Jewish business - Made interracial relationships/marriages illegal - Converting was not a way to get out of being a Jew - Criteria for being German/Jewish: - German: Three or four grandparents are of German descent - Jewish: Three or four grandparents were Jewish - Nazi’s wanted German Jews to leave Germany, but did not want them to take their money with them; set laws out that the German Jews that wanted to leave could only take a certain amount of money with them - About half of German Jews left before the war; some that left were prominent scientists who helped with the atomic bomb - Martin Neimoeller - German anti-Nazi theologian - Initially supported Hitler; over time began to reject his ideals, mainly the Aryan Paragraph - Spoke out against Hitler + was eventually imprisoned in concentration camps - Famous speech “First they came...” - “First they came for the socialists, and I didn't speak out because I wasn't a socialist. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak out because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak out because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for me, and there was no one left to speak for me.“ Communism (4) Imperialism Totalitarianism International Affairs: The Peace of Westphalia (1648) - International sovereignty - Series of peace treaties - Ended Thirty Years War and Eighty Years War - Allowed for countries to have sovereignty The ?Old Diplomacy? The Schlieffen Plan - Involved using 90% of Germany's armed forces to attack France - Argued that if France was speedily defeated, Britain and Russia would be unwilling to carry on fighting - It was important to force France to surrender before Russia was ready to use its forces - Fearing French forts along German border, he suggested an attack through Holland, Belgium and Luxembourg - The rest of the German army would be sent to defensive positions in the east to stop the expected Russian advances The Supreme War Council (1917-1920) - Came up with Treaty of Versailles - Created by British PM David Lloyd George - Coordinated allied military strategy during WWI Woodrow Wilson The Paris Peace Conference (1919) (3) The Young Plan Appeasement (2) The Hitler-Stalin Pact (1939) - Pact stopped communism parties across the continent, played a major role in the resistance movement - Extremely organized - Communism was a major role in integration - As Cold War became more intense, communists hatred for capitalism grew and backed away from integration - Capitalist countries feared communism and thus tried to integrate with each other - Hitler knew that the only power big enough to get to him was Russia The Fall of France Operation Barbarossa - Code name for Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union - Considered the biggest invasion in history - Supported by the Finish and Romanians - 3.2 million German soldiers The Yalta Conference The Manhattan Project The atomic bomb The United Nations The Cold War (2) Churchill?s Iron Curtain speech (2) Marshall Plan (9) NATO (6) Berlin Wall (7) Decolonization (9) The Suez Crisis France: Dreyfus Affair: Political scandal that divided France from its inception 1894 until it was resolved in 1906 - Colonel Alfred Dreyfus (Jewish decent) was wrongly convicted of treason and sentenced to life imprisonment for spying for Germany - Church, army and monarchists vs. republicans and socialists - Consequences 1) Separation of Church and State in France - Renewed conflict between Church and State - Emile Combes - Used to be a priest - Because of him, priests were taken off state payroll - Inspired by Voltaire 2) The most virulent outburst of anti-semitic sentiment in Western Europe before Hitler - Edouard Drumont - French right wing - Most influential person that was anti-semitic - La Libre Parole - Free speech, French newspaper - The French Antisemitic League (1897) - 80,000 Jews in France and 45,000 in Algeria - Became scapegoats for the anti-Semitic for the problems in the economy - The Protocols of the Elders of Zion (1894-1899) - Produced by the secret police of the Tsar - A document outlining how the Jews were planning to take over the world - Inspired Hitler 3) Theodore Herzl (1860-1952), Action Francaise (1898) - The Zionist movement - Made Herzl believe there was no home for Jews in Europe so he started the Zionist movement 4) Charles Maurras, Action Francaise - Had large intellectual influence around the world, on upper middle class of the capitalist countries - Combined high end literary criticism with incredibly crude attacks with Jews in his newspaper - Monarchy would solve all of societies problems - Masses were desperate - His group was too weak to overthrow the republic Georges Clemenceau (3) The Popular Front - French Communist Party, French Section of the Worker's International, Radical and Socialist Party - The left wing started to form a unified party, the Popular Front - Help to get started by the Comintern - Comintern started Popular Fronts in many countries, including Spain - Won election in 1936 - Leon Blum - Socialist, left wing - 2 million workers went on strike - Social reform and rearmament - Socialist were the biggest party in the country - Introduced collective bargaining for corporations, the 40 hour work week, paid vacations for workers, nationalized the bank of France, etc. - Began to build up the army - Banned fascist organizations - Flight of the Franc occurred The Maginot Line: Huge, underground, fortified line along the French/German border - Shaped their military strategy for WWI - Marshal Philippe Petain - Distinction of Marshal of France, later Chief of State of Vichy France - "Fire power kills" - Defence was the best plan - The French also had little money for the army, so they focused on defensive weapons - Named after Andre Maginot, French minister of war - Line of concrete fortifications, tank obstacles, artillery casemates, machine gun posts and other defences Vichy France (3) Charles De Gaulle (5) The Free French François Mitterand Germany: The Weimar Republic (1918-1933) - The Burgfrieden (1914) - “Party truce” - Political truce between Social Democratic Party of Germany and other political parties during WWI - Paul Von Hindenburg - Played a role in the rise of Hitler - Wanted to win a major all-out war, did not want a treaty - Launched a major front that threatened Paris - Due to American’s entering war, the attack was beaten back - Testified before a parliamentary inquiry; “The German army was stabbed in the back.” - An incomplete revolution - Army made a treaty with the socialists against the radical socialists (SPD + Freikorps vs. radical socialists) - Proportional Representation System - The Weimar Coalition (none of these parties were strong enough to form a gov’t) - SPD (Social Democrats) were moderate socialists; called themselves Marxist, but were really reformists - Centre Part (Zentrum) - About 16% of vote - Catholic party - Had very little room for growth - Did not appeal to Protestants - Liberals (DDP) - Small group of Liberal intellectuals and professionals - Stood for the rights of individuals -1920 - only had 3% - Conservative nationalists - “The German People’s Party” (DVP) - 14% - “From the Red Chains, only the DVP will set us free” - German National People’s Party (DNVP) - Right wing monarchist - 19% - Extremist Parties - Inspired by Soviet Union - Number one enemy was the German Socialists - The Communist Party (KPD) - The National Socialist German Worker’s Party (NSDAP) - Nazi party - Minor fringe in the 1920’s - 10 elections and 20 governments in 14 years (revolving door political system) - Presidents - Freidrich Ebert (1871-1925, president from 1919-1925) - Paul Von Hindenberg (President 1925-1934) - The New Republic problems - Demobilization; many soldiers were wounded - Lacked deep roots - Lots of widows, orphans had to be supported - The republic was burdened with the treaty that Germany had to sign with allies - Many people believed that they were responsible for the German defeat - In many situations the republic was seen as illegitimate - Incomplete nature of the revolution - Fragmented political system - The Kapp Putsch (1920) - Wolfgang Kapp - Attempted a coup but was defeated - Tried to undo the results of the German revolution - Prominent assassinations (by right wing extremists) - Matthias Erzberger (1921); was one of the persons who signed the Armistice treaty - Walter Rathenau (1922) - The Reparations Issue - Article 231: “War Guilt Clause” - Establish the legal bases for reparations - Article 232: Capacity to Pay - Reparations must be within reason) - The Reparations Bill - 132 billion Gold Marx - As a result of the war, all countries had inflation - A Bonds - $12 billion - B Bonds - $38 billion - C Bonds - $82 billion - Was never expected to be paid, just used to fool the allies public - Germans offered to pay more than this in 1919 - Payments ceased by 1922 - French and Belgians occupied the Ruhr basin (Jaunuary 1923) - Most industrial area of Germany - Attempted to get Germany to pay reparations - People with a lot of money could place their money in foreign bank accounts to avoid the inflation - Beer Hall Putsch (November 8/9, 1923) - Hitler and Ludendorff attempted to seize power int he Southern city of Munich in Germany - Hitler was corporal in the German army - Inspired by Mussolini in his march on Rome (Oct. 1922) - Adolf Hitler - Austrian-born German political leader of the Nazi Party - Chancellor of Germany from 1933-1945 - Dictator from 1934-1945 - Imprisoned for high treason - While in prison, he wrote most of Mein Kampf (My Struggle) - Said that pure Germans were the Aryan race/master race - Anti-semitic - Wrote about a "Jewish peril"; stated that Jews wanted to gain world leadership - Lebensraum; living space - Nazi ideology that the law of nature states that all healthy and vigorous peoples of superior races are to displace people of inferior races - The Dawes Plan - The cause of inflation was the occupation of Ruhr - In order to solve the problem, the Dawes plan was made - Provided the leaving of the Ruhr and a staggered payment plan for Germany's payment of war reparations - Gustav Stresemann - Foreign minister and chancellor of Germany during the Weimar republic - Created new currency; reassured the people that the gov't was willing and able to solve urgent problems Gleichshaltung: A Nazi term for the process by which the Nazi regime successively established a system of totalitarian control and coordination over all aspects of society - Those that opposed Hitler's ideologies were murdered or intimidated, sent to concentration camps, etc. - Eliminated non-Nazi or anti-Nazi organizations such as trade unions or political parties - Administrations that the regime could not eliminate, such as th
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