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History Day 7.docx

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Darren Mulloy

History Day 7 Lecture: Tuesday, October 2 Salem Executions, Endings, and Interpretations Trials and Executions:  Following the dissolving of the previous charter there is a profound wait before Increase Mather returns from England with a new charter and new Governor (Phips) to hear and witness the trial  Bridget Bishop is first executed on June 10  She is accused guilty by spectral evidence  The court asked 12 ministers to advise them on the proceedings and witchcraft in Salem o They create the document ‘The Return of Several Ministers Consulted’  However this document is very ambiguous and not very straight forward  The ministers warn spectral evidence must be dealt with very carefully, even more so if the accused is an upstanding citizen (Rebecca Nurse)  Should have other corroborating evidence on the accused  They do determine however that public examinations are a bad idea  Then it compliments the court on their “diligent” prosecution  So the document is very misleading and leans both ways  *THE MINISTERS NEVER DISPROVE SPECTRAL EVIDNCE*  Spectral evidence has decided that the devil cannot take the form of an innocent therefore if someone accuses your spectre of tormenting them you are guilty  This document is especially useful for Rebecca Nurse as it specifically addresses upstanding members of the society Rebecca Nurse’s Trial  Eldest daughter petitions to the court with 39 people attesting to her innocence  Eldest daughter also complains to the court that the people acting “possessed” were pricking themselves with pins but the court refuses to investigate  Nurse originally is found innocent  Nurse: “what, do these persons give in evidence against me now, they used to come among us.”  This is seen as guilty so when the judges ask her to explain herself and she remains silent she is found guilty  When nurse explains she is deaf and then explains that she meant that she merely was in jail with these people not that she was a witch so her family goes to the Governor Thips and she is granted a reprieve (not guilty)  Then a man from salem who is not documented goes to the governor and demands he overturns his reprieve so he does (guilty again) and she is hanged The Third Session of the Court (Reverend Burroughs trial) th  Despite being a minister he is found guilty and executed on August 19 and just before he is hanged he flawlessly recites the Lord’s prayer th  4 other men are hanged on August 19  The executions remove any doubt that if you confess you remain alive and you join the other accusers which is bizarre because in their religion you are not permitted to allow a witch to live  This could be due to the fact of the absence of the legal charter and not wanting to infringe laws  All of a sudden tons of people were confessing! Because they weren’t being hanged!  They figured it out as a way to stay alive  This makes a problem to differentiate who is and is not a witch and is now undermining the court making them look stupid  On September 17, the court realize that they have way too many people who have confessed so 9 are put on trial 4 of which are women and only Samuel Wardell who says his confession was a lie is hung  September 20, an accused by the name of Dorcas Hoar confesses and is put in jail which would eventually save her life Criticism Mounts  The better sort are accused (richest family in Salem is accused; Mary English0  Governor of Massachusetts wife is accused  Increase Mather at this time releases a document “Case of Conscience concerning evil spirits personating men’ as does Samueal Willard ‘some miscellany observations on our present debates respecting witchcrafts’ o From these the following is taken:  Devil can take the shape of an innocent mans spectre  Touch tests are unreliable (touch and the spirit jumps out)  Afflicted’s evidence is diabolical not authentic  Unreliability of confessors accusing others  Andover Letter: o Pretty much tells the court that people have confessed to save their lives  So on October 8, the governor declares that no more arrests shall be made unless it is unavoidable and that nobody should be killed if there is even a slight bit of doubt of guilt  The court disregards this so governor Phips dissolves the court and creates a new superior court that tries the remaining cases and only 3 of 52 are found guilty and then reprieved  The following May governor Phips would issue a general pardon and end the hysteria Why did this Happen?  Hallucinations o Girls were suffering from hallucinations possibly from a poisoning in rye o This would eventually be disproven by the results that rye could not produce hallucinations o Laurie Carlson believes there could have been swelling of the brain which causes terrible hallucinations o But why would they see witches and why did the community believe these girls  Hysteria o A psychological explanation that because of the oppressive nature of Puritanism people were hysterical and too gullable  Witchcraft o “one cannot fully understand any aspect of the events at Salem without recognition of the genuine power of witchcraft in a society that believes in it” Chadwick Hansen o The genuine belief could result in a placebo effect o Chadwick Hansen also believes that Bridget Good may actually have been a practicing witch, along with Reverend Burroughs the former minister  Fraud o Bernard Rosenthal believed that the girls were doing this intentionally  Ann and Abigail Williams claim on May 23, that they saw the same hallucination which is impossible! If they both took malls would they see the same thing  Sarah Nurse’s daughter also claimed to have seen the afflicted pokking themselves with pin  Girls found bound and hung from tree which if you rule out witchcraft is not possible to be done alone  Social origins o Boyer and Nissenbaum went through all the records of Salem and determined that it was a miserable place to live  Village v. Town  Parishioners v. Ministers  Land disputes  Rising v. Declining fortunes (Putnams v. Nurses)  The citizens did not support Parris  Frontier conflict o We must understand the frontier conflict of the time o Colonists win the first Indian war (King Phillip’s War) 1675-1678 o Colonists do not do so well in second Indian war (King Williams War) 1689-1697 o People were killed land was stolen goods were lost o Many of the people in salem village were refugees from these awful battles and which they saw o Mary Norton believes that it could be what we now call post-traumatic-stress disorder o She believes that they should have blamed their loss of the second war to their military tactics yet they took it as God’s punishment for a sin, which also coincides with the outbreak of witchcraft (bad stuff happening) with a bunch of angry and dillusional people o This lies on the responsibility who were responsible for the worst failings on the second Indian war coincidentally who were very involved in the witch trials (Hathorne and Corwin.. The JUDGES!) History Day 8 Lecture: Tuesday, October 9 McCarthyism and the Red Scare of the 1940’s and 1950’s  Joseph McCarthy in Wheeling, West Virginia in February 1950 delivers a speech declaring that there are 200 members of the state who are members of the communist party  But the hunt for communists began before McCarthy and ended after his death  Some other key players: o Harry Truman o J. Edgar Hoover o Richard Nixon o FBI o Justice Department o House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC)  Some other names: o The Red Scare o The American Inquisition o The Great Fear  Affected: o Hollywood o Education o American thought on radicalism Background and Contexts:  The First Red Scare o 1919-1920 o Propelled by:  World War I 1914-1918 (America joins in 1917)  Russian Revolution (1919) o These threatened  Capitalism  Liberty  Democracy  Christianity  Freedom o Comintern- the idea of spreading communism world wide o Three laws were created  Espionage Act 1917  Outlaws any public statement that obstructs the war effort or aids the enemy  Immigration Act 1917  Bans any member of a revolutionizing party from coming into America and allows the deportation of revolutionaries back to homeland (communist party)  Sedition Act 1918  Any disloyal opinion can be punishable by 20 years in jail o Disrespecting the flag or the government o Main targets:  The socialist party (industrial workers of the world- IWW)  166 IWW leaders tried usually for speaking out against the war Major Unrest in 1919  Seattle General Strike (troops called in)  May Day rioting  36 bombs explode (including the homes of Seattle Mayor Hanson and Attorney General Mitchell Palmer)  Businesses attempting to kill unions The Palmer Raids (Attorney general)  Novermber7, 1919- 12 cities, 300 arrested (Union of Russian workers raided and deported)  Palmer was lashing out against threats to the American government  Raids are successful because they gain public support  January 2, 1920- 33 cities, over 4000 arrested (communist party, communist labour party)  Typically targeting Russians and Palmer wants to deport 3500 back to their homeland The End?  Louis Post stops the deportation and states Palmer’s raids are “illegal prosecutions, symptoms of a popular frenzy (hysteria)”  Another thing that brings the hysteria to an end is that May Day 1920 is very quiet, no violence During this time there was no such thing as being “Un-Canadian” being communist may be frowned upon but only in the states is it illegal and this is the context for the Second Red Scare HUAC and the New Deal  Congressman Martin Dies and Special Committee on Un-American Activities (1938)  Anti-communism=anti-new dealism  1929- stock market crashes, Great Depression ensues  1933- 100, 000 businesses fail and 13 million people are out of work (only 8 million out of work today)  Franklin Roosevelt is elected President and he doctors the “New deal” to rectify the economy (see handout for New Deal components)  When he is re-elected he creates the Second New Deal (see handout) Why? 1. New powers to the federal government 2. A welfare state (origins of current welfare state) 3. The success of the democratic party Complaints about New Deal  Too much tax  Too much government control  Socialist/communist ideas So when Roosevelt dies and Truman is elected they label the New Deal as communist as a way to attack the Democrats and win elections HUAC (Back on Track)  Almost goes out of business during second world war but made a resurgence following the war (see handout) Truman, the Cold War and the Origins of McCarthyism  March 12, 1947- Truman addresses congress to ask for their help in the global fight of communism, although he does not name the communists, he states that wherever the communists flare up in the world, the United States will fight them off for the good of democracy  The United States in 1945: o 400 000 dead o GNP doubled since 1941 o 6% of the world’s population and 75% of worlds invested capital o 2/3 of world’s industrial capacity o They are an economic powerhouse  The USSR in 1945: o 20 to 25 million people dead o 15 cities and 1710 towns, 70 000 villages destroyed o 25 million homeless o 65 000 kilometres of railroad track, 90 000 bridges and 10 000 power stations destroyed o Industrial output cut in half since 1940  By the end of the war Stalin, Churchill, Roosevelt all were suspicious of one another  This is weird because they were just allies in defeating Fascism and now that Russia lays in ruin they want increased security Anti-Communism and the Truman Doctrine  Stalin blames the second world war on Capitalists and that the Soviet’s must prepare for another upcoming conflict to defeat capitalism once and for all  This confirmed American suspicions that Soviet was sneaky and would do anything for world power  Winston Churchill then comes to the states and delivers his “iron curtain speech” o An iron curtain divides Europe o Communist is on the move world wide o Must be stopped  Crisis in Greece (1944-1947) o Britain comes to the states for help to bail out Greece and Turkey o They fear not that Greece will be taken over but that in the chaos of starvation and unemployment these weaker nations could develop domestic communist parties and become communist nations o They fear this could happen in France and Italy and therefore western Europe will fall into communism under soviet rule/ties  1946 congressional elections and Republican gains o However the Americans too have suffered through the war and it would be hard to convince the need to bail out of Europe o Therefore Truman and his advisors have to persuade Americans that it is in their national interest to save Europe and conquer communism o He would have to “scare the hell out of the communism” –Republican senator Arthur Valdenberg o However in the speech (see handout) he is criticized of overdoing his doctrine and scaring people of communism in the United States (Second Red Scare)  The paradox of strength and vulnerability o Who to blame? o Who sold us out? o The enemy within? o Basically how can the strongest nation after the war be so gullible? Well by internal disloyalty that gave Russia the plans for the atomic bomb and etc. o Americans selling secrets to the Russians this fear aided the Red Scare History Day 9 McCarthyism Day 2 Lecture: Tuesday, October 16  Truman’s loyalty security program o There were previous loyalty programs put into effect during both WWI- 600 people lost job and WWII- 100 people lost job o However, Truman institutes his loyalty program when there is no war which is peculiar and it was the most intense loyalty-security program  What did it do and how did it work: o Anyone who was applying for a job within the government or anyone with an existing job were subject to a loyalty test o Go through HUAC and FBI files that indicate disloyalty o He also set up loyalty boards and loyalty review boards (saw over all loyalty boards) in each government department o You can defend yourself in court if charged and appeal if convicted o All seems fair and reasonable however... o Accusers could be anonymous o You never received knowledge about the accusation upon you or your accuser o Hmmm seems vaguely close to spectral evidence o If you were thought to have any association with someone of a foreign party or used to be a part of the party were grounds for dismissal o So even if you no longer had this association you could still be dismissed o The extent of the loyalty checks give a lot of power to the security officers o Concerns were raised about how they got your information, how long they kept it for and even after you have been checked once you have been promoted or transferred the checks begin all over again o The past loyalty programs used to be you could be dismissed if the government found you disloyal how ever in Truman’s case it was up to you to show you were loyal  Attorney General’s List o A list of suspicious individuals and subversive organizations o Almost like a blacklist o No appeal o Once on the list you stay on the list o This list would then be used by other businesses and people to ensure they were not hiring disloyal workers  Dismissals o 2700 people are dismissed from work and 12000 people resign  Why did Truman do this? o Genuine concern about national security  1946 Gallup poles found that  36% of people supported harsh measures against disloyalists (deportation, jail)  69% would deny communist party members government jobs  61% outlaw the communist party  1948  77% of people thought communists should register with the government o The pressure of the Republicans that Truman supports communism measures o Support for the Truman Doctrine abroad  Wanted to scare people so that it appeared to be in America’s national interest to control communism worldwide because they were not only abroad but in their own country and government  HUAC and Hollywood o Undertook enormous investigation of Hollywood o Why Hollywood?  There were communists in Hollywood  Working as actors, screenwriters and directors o Film Content  Very concerned about the number of pro-soviet films made during the second world war  This seemed good before when America and Russia were allies but now appeared to be a way to infiltrate American film  Wanted to investigate rumours of pro-soviet propaganda being slipped into films of any genre o Recent Labour Disputes  Strikes  Disputes  Attracted HUAC o Soft Target?  People believe that Hollywood has flawed political views still  Emphasis on sex and stars and partying o Publicity  Household names being put before the HUAC committee will help to revive their organization that only a few years ago was almost out of business o Friendly witnesses  Support and are sympathetic to HUAC’s cause  Come forth and claim there are communists in their industry and want it to stop o Un-friendly witnesses  People who oppose HUAC’s cause  Often were accused of being communists themselves  Hollywood 10  All had either been or were a part of the communist party  Refused to answer HUAC’s question  Claimed it was within their rights of free speech  They are then cited with contempt of court and they are sentenced 10 years in prison
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