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Brent Hagerman

11/25/2013 11:24:00 AM FILMS School of Assassins 1997- part of a larger film (already seen a clip from) “what I’ve learned about American Foreign Policy” Nixon leaving office in 1974 replaced by Ford  Vietnam 1975 – confirmed North Vietnam suspicion that U.S. wouldn’t intervene  North launched massive offensive- Ford approved massive helicopter evacuations for the few Americans left  1500 Viennese escaped – final scene – angry Vietnamese soldiers (U.S. former allies) shooting at former American allies as they were helicopter out of Saigon 1975  Saigon renamed  Thinking of Vietnam war (BIG THEME IN COURSE) – encouraged on going shift in foreign policy from containment to content  SEATO(Southeast Asian treaty organization) formed in 1954- Philippines Australia) it was disbanded in 1977 (formed initially for Vietnam)  1976 Presidential elections saw Ford in his campaign replacing Détente (Nixon’s) with his slogan “Peace through strength”  Watergate scandal/ pardoning of Nixon= helped the democrats in elections  Jimmy Carter- born again Baptist Georgian – focused on human rights as his main/special agenda  Carter administration- more vocal on a world order based on human rights- since Woodrow Wilson  Containment policy still remained an underlying objective of Carter- still focused on human rights  His main difficultly was lack of vision/direction  Carter’s position was firm but he had no big Presidential vision- larger than the problems he was looking at the time  Liked to micromanage-set the schedule for White house tennis court for example  Carter administration had some success with Third World countries- by realizing (unlike predecessors) that not every problem was Soviet based he realized that nationalism did not necessarily have any ties to communism in Third World countries  Carter based economic assistance upon human right reforms because the main focus in relating to Third World Nations wanted to see how they behaved in terms of human rights  Following a position already stated by both Kennedy and Johnson- Carter was against the all white rule in Rhodesia became Zimbabwe and in Africa  Carter’s government worked with British for change in majority rule  Came about with 1980 election- saw a government headed by a black Marxists named Robert Mc  In the case of south Africa- blacks were 85% of population- the Carter administration was not successful in getting the white regime to change at that time  Latin America- suffering from over population/poverty had witnessed lots of nationalistic movements- generally put down by military regimes which were supported by American backing  Carter tried to deal with Latin American problems by using economic pressures to force those right-wing regimes to respect human rights  Carter first tried to re-establish formal relations with Cuba in 1977 nothing came of it mainly because Cuba didn’t need America – still getting aid from Soviet Union- 22 million about every week- to artificially sustain their economy  In the Panama- Carter had success- the Hay Bunai Varilla treaty of 1903 the u.s. received 100 year lease of Panama territory – for the canal route - Carter wanting better relations- wanted to end U.S. control of Panama Canal – so two pacts came into affect 1978 1. The Panama Canal Treaty the U.S. would gradually return control of the canal zone in stages to Panama by the year 2000 2. Treaty concerning the permanent neutrality and operation of a canal (the second treaty) authorized America to ensure neutrality of the canal America could be there if there was trouble essentially  Storm of protests over Carter giving back to Panama in America  Future President Ragan – was upset at this fact- he didn’t understand history of canal – called it sovereign U.S. territory just like Alaska- considered it an aspect of states- coming out of Louisiana Purchase- off base with history- 80% of Americans agreed that they shouldn’t give up anything  Carter had Nicaragua (for essay on exam) to deal with [since 1936 U.S. supported the Samosa family dictator ship by providing arms, in tern, they cooperated with America when America intervened in Guatemala in 1954) - Co-op with Cuba invasion in 1961 - co-op as a base for Americans in 1965 with Dominican Republic (Johnson goes in with 20,000 troops – didn’t like form of government)  1978 the leftist group Sandinistas  successful in rising in rebellion in Nicaragua – group named after Sandino who fought against U.S. forces in Nicaragua from 1920s until 1934 - Sandino fought American occupation - Samosa family dictatorship had him killed  Sandinistas had a lot of support in Catholic country + catholic church  America had money sent to promote reform- came after a lot of debate in congress  Carter’s administration became very focused on middle-eastern problems Carter personally intervening and achieving a first major move toward peace (no easy feet in the middle east) in the Spring of 1979 Sadat of Egypt and Begin Leader of Israel – signed an agreement at White House Egyptian Israeli Peace treaty- important step towards a general settlement - this agreement sought diplomatic and economic relations between Israel and Egyptian 5 billion dollars in American aid would be given to the two countries - see declining Soviet-American relations during the Carter years  Soviet main concern- Chinese /Soviet Relations  Carter carried on from Nixon’s trip to China in 1972 by formalizing relations with China in 1979  Nixon’s Détente added to the Soviet’s signing SALT II 1979 (STRATEGIC ARMS LIMITATION TREATY) focused on reducing nuclear stock piles- possible bridge- however, Carter was not successful because Congress would not give approval  Focus soon moved to Iran Nov 4 th1979  400 student militants storm U.S. Embassy in Teheran- seize 66 diplomats/personnel- caused a real crisis which would eventually bring down Carter administration ***  As a backdrop to this the CIA facilitated the Shah of Iran’s return to power in 1953 and they continued to support him- even tough the people hated the Shah  Fundamentalists Shi’ite Muslims- 90% of population in Iran- he tried to improve women’s place in society, tried to import western lifestyle to Iran - young people in Iran wanted a constitutional government instead of monarch - because government was so corrupt - all Iranians resented the 50,000 Americans in Iran who trained the Iranian military and ran the important oil reserves  Iran spending money on Military weaponry was done at the expense of impoverished Iranians – another factor why people hated the Shah  Both leftists and rightist clergy in Iran- allied in hatred of Shah and also hated the American trained secret police the SAVAK  1978 violence breaks out + Cancer ridden Shah= cant deal with situation  1979 Shah flees Iran and he was replaced by the Muslim’s chief religious figure- Khomeini- had been living in exile for years- had been directing fanatical followers to bring down Shah- announced formation of Iran Republic  Iran had warned America that if you moved the Shah to America that would endanger Americans in Iran- Carter allowed the Shah to admittance to New York Hospital- two weeks later- Iranian students seize embassy in Turan  Saw Iranians on TV. shouting – U.S. was Satan and Death to America  Americans demanded military actions to free hostages abroad  Early 1980 Iran also cut off oil to U.S. this made oil prices immediately jump by 130 %- now the Shah is in Panama after treatment  Carter decides to authorize rescue attempt to Iran named Eagle Claw ended in humiliating defeat for America- the plan called for helicopters and U.S. command crews to free hostages- everything went wrong with operation  One of helicopters collided with an American transport aircraft= ended up killing 8 American crew men  Botched attempt by America to get hostages out- Americans a few days later- see Americans exhibiting the charred remains of the Americans who had died in collision  Soviets invade Iran’s neighbor- Afghanistan – supporting a weak leftist regime- by early 1980 the Soviets were locked into battle with Afghan. Resistance groups- was based on Muslim rebels who were unhappy with their traditional culture being disturbed- did not like the anti-religious emphasis of Marxism  Carter’s administration in fear of a growing Soviet influence in oil rich area of the world- he took several steps to show distain for Soviets being in the area  America boycotted Olympic games  He proclaimed the Carter Doctrine- it veered from Nixon doctrine (Détente- idea of partnerships/getting along) going to uni-lateral approach (similar to Eisenhower doctrine) Carter announced, if need be the U.S. would act alone to protect the middle east oil from soviet take over  Carter’s reaction was undercut by
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