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Study Guide

MI202- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 22 pages long!)


Department
Mediterranean Studies
Course Code
MI202
Professor
Vesna Leko
Study Guide
Midterm

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WLU
MI202
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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No dates from exile
# of Basque provinces: 7 provinces
when ETA was formed: 1959
When they completely ceased activities: October 20, 2011
how EU grew:
month and year when Turkey applied to EU: April 1987
immigration length of ITALIANS (1861-1981)
decades when Egypt immigrants arrived: 1956 - 1983
when first Greek immigrants arrived to Canada: 1840-1860
2 major waves of Italian immigration dates: First was 1861-1900, Second was 1900-1914
Moroccans are the largest North African community in Canada
Lectures:
1. Exile
Exile Lecture
· Modern Age = Age of Exile: Spiritually orphaned and alienated; the age of anxiety and
estrangement
· ^ Secular and historical, produced by human beings, has torn millions of people from
nourishment of tradition, family and geography (Said)
· Exiles are very often in a marginalized position; Somewhere between the homeland
and the new place of residence, not belonging to either one
· Males and females experience exile differently; Women tend to adapt better to the
marginalized position because they have already been living in such state in their
homeland (some even prefer exile from the society they come from!!)
· Exile has become the main element in the formation of a new female identity
· ^ This is because women, especially women writers, used the new space to create a
new reformation of women’s status that has been oppressed by colonialism, post-
colonial authoritarian regimes and religious fundamentalism
· MEN on the other hand, tend to experience exile as a more unpleasant and
threatening
· ^ Said says this is because of men’s tendency to have a hostility towards outsiders,
strict preservation of theory original values and refusal to adapt or in any way belong to
the new culture
· Exiles who ignore the culture and politics of their new “host - land” run the risk of
producing discourses of oppression
Edward Said
· Born in Jerusalem (1935)
· Christian-Palestinian origin (Palestinian-American)
· Lived between Jerusalem and Cairo since age of 12
· Educated in elite English-language schools in Jerusalem and Cairo
· Moved to US (1951)
· Attended Princeton (BA) and Harvard (MA and PhD)
· Worked at Columbia university as a prof. of comparative literature and English
· Said was never able to find his rightful place in the world
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Christian Palestinian living in Egypt and USA, educated in exclusive British and American
institutions, with a very Arabic last name and definitely English first name
·
“A Palestinian going to school in Egypt, with an English first name, an American Passport
and no certain identity at all. To make matters worse, Arabic my native language, and
English, my school language, were inextricably mixed. I have never known which was
my first language, and haven’t felt fully at home in neither, although I dream in both”
(Said)
· Said’s exile is not just physical but psychological as well
· “I always take too much with me (when he travels), even a trip downtown requires the
packaging of a briefcase stocked with items larger in size and number than the actual
period of the trip. Analyzing this, I concluded that I had a secret but ineradicable fear of
not returning” (Said)
· Said distinguishes between different types of people living outside their homeland:
Exiles, Refugees, Expatriates, Émigrés
· Out of the 4, exile is the most tragic and the oldest, comes from ancient laws of
banishment
· Refugee: “Large herds of innocent and bewildered people requiring international
assistance” (Said)
· Expatriates: Voluntarily live in another country- for social or personal reasons
· Émigrés: Are people who emigrate to a different country- Colonial official, missionaries,
mercenaries, military advisors
· Exile is never a matter of choice; it happens to you or you are born into it
· According to Said, it is possible to find a positive side to exile; Exiles cross boarders
and break barriers of thought and experience
· In order to access the positive side of exile, one must accept the independence and
detachment by working through attachments, not by rejecting them; Accepting the
inherence of loss in the sole idea of home
· Said’s positive side of exile is the idea of seeing the world as a foreign land which
makes possible originality of vision
· Most people are usually aware of one culture, one setting, one home; exiles are aware
of at least two giving them plurality of vision and awareness of simultaneous dimensions
· However, this does not improve the state of never being satisfied, placid or secure that
an exile is immersed in
· Said is most famous for his book, “Orientalism”
· The concept of the Orient (How people view the Middle East) was created by the
“West”, suppressing the ability of the “Orient” to express themselves
· The West depicted the Orient as an inferior world, a place of backwardness, irrationality,
and wildness; This allowed the “West” to identify themselves as the opposite of these
characteristics (Superior world, progressive, rational, and civil)
ETA Lecture
· The Basques maintained their culture and language despite frequent contact with
invaders and recent political divisions
· Their language is completely unrelated to any other in the Indo-European family
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