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Philosophy Final Exam Terms.docx

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Byron Williston

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Philosophy Final Exam Terms Absolutism - The acceptance of or belief in absolute principles in political, philosophical, ethical, or theological matters. Moral absolutism is an ethical view that certain actions are absolutely right or wrong, regardless of other circumstances such as their consequences or the intentions behind them. Thus stealing, for instance, might be considered to be always immoral, even if done to promote some other good (e.g., stealing food to feed a starving family), and even if it does in the end promote such a good. Moral absolutism stands in contrast to other categories of normative ethical theories such as consequentialism, which holds that the morality (in the wide sense) of an act depends on the consequences or the context of the act. Key difference between Locke and Hobbes Liberal equality: Providing the poor with the same opportunities as the average citizen i.e health care + child care Libertarianism – the group of political philosophies, which advocate minimizing coercion and emphasize freedom, liberty, and voluntary association. Libertarians generally advocate a society with significantly less government compared to most present day societies. Locke’s right of revolution – In political philosophy, the right of revolution (or right of rebellion) is the right or duty, variously stated throughout history, of the people of a nation to overthrow a government that acts against their common interests. Function of labor for Locke – is a natural law theory that holds that property originally comes about by the exertion of labor upon natural resources. Legal moralism – Legal moralism is the theory of jurisprudence and the philosophy of law which holds that laws may be used to prohibit or require behavior based on whether or not society's collective moral judgment is that it is immoral or moral. Legal moralism implies that it is permissible for the state to use its coercive power to enforce society's collective morality. Entitlement theory – entitlement theory comprises 3 main principles: 1. A principle of justice in acquisition - This principle deals with the initial acquisition of holdings. It is an account of how people first come to own common property, what types of things can be held, and so forth. 2. A principle of justice in transfer - This principle explains how one person can acquire holdings from another, including voluntary exchange and gifts. 3. A principle of rectification of injustice - how to deal with holdings that are unjustly acquired or transferred, whether and how much victims can be compensated, how to deal with long past transgressions or injustices done by a government, and so on. Hobbesian justice – Negative/positive rights – positive rights permit or oblige action, whereas negative rights permit or oblige inaction. Under the theory of positive and negative rights, a negative right is a right not to be subjected to an action of another person or group—a government, for example—usually in the form of abuse or coercion. A positive right is a right to be subjected to an action of another person or group. The proviso – a feature of John Locke's labor theory of property which says that whilst individuals have a right to homestead private property from nature by working on it, they can do so only " least where there is enough, and as good, left in common for others". Patterned theories – Hobbesian equality – according to Hobbes, everyone is equal in rights and the ability to survive in the state of nature. Within the state of nature, men have no more rights than women; if anything, women have a better claim to dominance over children than men do. Hobbes's seemingly enlightened attitude is a two-edged sword. Although everyone is equal in the state of nature, the state of nature is a wretched condition to be in, and people should be willing to suffer almost anything, including domination under a tyrant, in order to escape it. Inequality, along with art, culture, science, technology, and every other human good, arises only by leaving the state of nature. Inequality is artificial, but it is part and parcel with a decent life. Harm principle – The harm principle holds that the actions of individuals should only be limited to prevent harm to other individuals. Historical justifications of holdings – Principal causes of quarrel - First, competition; secondly, diffidence; thirdly, glory. The first make men invade for gain; the second, fo
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