Philosophy Final Exam Terms
Absolutism - The acceptance of or belief in absolute principles in political,
philosophical, ethical, or theological matters. Moral absolutism is an ethical view
that certain actions are absolutely right or wrong, regardless of other circumstances
such as their consequences or the intentions behind them. Thus stealing, for
instance, might be considered to be always immoral, even if done to promote some
other good (e.g., stealing food to feed a starving family), and even if it does in the
end promote such a good. Moral absolutism stands in contrast to other categories of
normative ethical theories such as consequentialism, which holds that the morality
(in the wide sense) of an act depends on the consequences or the context of the act.
Key difference between Locke and Hobbes
Liberal equality: Providing the poor with the same opportunities as the average
citizen i.e health care + child care
Libertarianism – the group of political philosophies, which advocate minimizing
coercion and emphasize freedom, liberty, and voluntary association. Libertarians
generally advocate a society with significantly less government compared to most
present day societies.
Locke’s right of revolution – In political philosophy, the right of revolution (or right
of rebellion) is the right or duty, variously stated throughout history, of the people
of a nation to overthrow a government that acts against their common interests.
Function of labor for Locke – is a natural law theory that holds that property
originally comes about by the exertion of labor upon natural resources.
Legal moralism – Legal moralism is the theory of jurisprudence and the philosophy
of law which holds that laws may be used to prohibit or require behavior based on
whether or not society's collective moral judgment is that it is immoral or moral.
Legal moralism implies that it is permissible for the state to use its coercive power
to enforce society's collective morality.
Entitlement theory – entitlement theory comprises 3 main principles:
1. A principle of justice in acquisition - This principle deals with the initial
acquisition of holdings. It is an account of how people first come to own
common property, what types of things can be held, and so forth.
2. A principle of justice in transfer - This principle explains how one person can
acquire holdings from another, including voluntary exchange and gifts.
3. A principle of rectification of injustice - how to deal with holdings that are
unjustly acquired or transferred, whether and how much victims can be
compensated, how to deal with long past transgressions or injustices done by
a government, and so on. Hobbesian justice –
Negative/positive rights – positive rights permit or oblige action, whereas negative
rights permit or oblige inaction. Under the theory of positive and negative rights, a
negative right is a right not to be subjected to an action of another person or
group—a government, for example—usually in the form of abuse or coercion. A
positive right is a right to be subjected to an action of another person or group.
The proviso – a feature of John Locke's labor theory of property which says that
whilst individuals have a right to homestead private property from nature by
working on it, they can do so only "...at least where there is enough, and as good, left
in common for others".
Patterned theories –
Hobbesian equality – according to Hobbes, everyone is equal in rights and the ability
to survive in the state of nature. Within the state of nature, men have no more rights
than women; if anything, women have a better claim to dominance over children
than men do. Hobbes's seemingly enlightened attitude is a two-edged sword.
Although everyone is equal in the state of nature, the state of nature is a wretched
condition to be in, and people should be willing to suffer almost anything, including
domination under a tyrant, in order to escape it. Inequality, along with art, culture,
science, technology, and every other human good, arises only by leaving the state of
nature. Inequality is artificial, but it is part and parcel with a decent life.
Harm principle – The harm principle holds that the actions of individuals should
only be limited to prevent harm to other individuals.
Historical justifications of holdings –
Principal causes of quarrel - First, competition; secondly, diffidence; thirdly, glory.
The first make men invade for gain; the second, fo