5 Epochs of Human History
1. „Primitive‟ communal society: no class antagonism. *non-hierarchal=peace*
2. Slave society (freeman, slave).
3. Feudal society (lord and serf = those work on land but do not own)
4. The Capitalist Society (bourgeois and proletariat)
5. Communist Society (no class antagonism, again)
Historical evolution is an often violent process. One group may need to forcibly remove the
other. Revolutions are usually bloody. Why should there be a need for a revolution if the
government is going to fall anyways (determinism)?
2 Pivotal Role of Capitalism
The Industrial Revolution involved a huge increase in mechanization of the forces of production.
1) Huge increases in economically relevant technology. Creation of economies of scale:
huge increases in efficiency reduce the cost per unit of production.
2) An ever-expanding international trade opens up new markets for products.
The Result is Profit
- Massive increase in the ability to produce surplus value.
Surplus value: value created in the process of production above that required for a) the material
subsistence of those engaged in the labour process and b) the maintenance of the system of
Capitalists will only care about proletariats labour. You have no control of the price
of your labour; leads to low wages. Therefore, increasing antagonism between fat-cats and sweat
shop workers (bourgeois and proletariat).
Inequality in Canada is increasing: from 2