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PP110 Philosophy quiz1.docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Anneke Olthof

PP110 Philosophy Quiz1 Sep 21 Unit 1 1.1 WHAT IS PHILOSOPHY?  Philosophy begins when we start to WONDER about and question our basic beliefs o When we undertake philosophy, we do so because we are ignorant, puzzled, confused, or simply overawed by the vastness of what we don’t know  Philein=to love, Sophia=wisdom  the love of wisdom  Three clues about philosophy o Philosophers will take any opportunity to disagree, argue, and debate o There is almost nothing up for question and debate in philosophy o If you want to know what philosophy is, you must be prepared to philosophize (thinking in philosophy)  Page7: Groupthink – Irving Janis o The tendency of cohesive group s to get increasingly out of touch with reality o WHAT ASPECTS OF PLATO’S Myth of The Cave CAN BE INTERPRETED AS GROUPTHINK?  The GOLE of philosophy is to answer these questions for ourselves and achieve AUTONOMY o Autonomy: the freedom of being able to decide for yourself what you will believe in by using your own reasoning abilities Plato’s Myth of the Cave  The cave = situation: ignorance, prejudice, thoughtlessness, and complacency Plato’s Parable and “Doing” Philosophy ** The Myth of the Cave suggests philosophy is an activity that is difficult, has the aim of freedom, and examines the most basic assumptions of human existence  Philosophy as an Activity o Philosophical theories are the products of philosophy o How to DO philosophical  philosophizing  Philosophy is Hard Work o Thinking critically, consistently, and carefully about beliefs  The Aim of Philosophy is Freedom  Philosophy Examines Our Most Basic Assumptions o Plato’s parable suggests that the beliefs that philosophy examines are the most basic concerns of human existence o To do philosophy is to love wisdom. Because wisdom is an understanding of the most fundamental aspects of human living, to love wisdom is to grapple with and seek to understand the most basic issue in our lives  Perictione (a woman philosopher) – philosophy is a search for the purpose of the universe  Philosophy – the love and pursuit of wisdom – as the activity of critically and carefully examining the reasons behind the most fundamental assumptions of our human lives The Diversity of Philosophy  Women are important  The non-Western culture is important  2 philosophical approaches that focus on ideas that are not always included in introductions to philosophy o Feminist philosophy: women o Multiculturalism: different cultures ***Explanation and Justification  Some opinions are better to have than other; that better opinions are supported by better reasons  Distinction between reasons for holding a belief, and explanations of why someone hole a belief o Reasons criterion:  Justify a belief: if something is really a reason for holding a certain belief, then it will increase the likelihood that the belief is true  Reasons for holding a belief: if they are any good at all, are reasons for anyone to hold the same belief, but a good explanation of why someone holds a belief may not help at all to explain why another person holds that same belief 1.2 THE TRADITIONAL DIVISIONS OF PHILOSOPHY  Traditionally, philosophy has sought an organized understanding of reality and our place in it: an understanding of how we ought to love, including the reasons for our personal and social moral values, and an understanding of what knowledge and truth are  3 categories: Knowledge, Reality, and Values  Epistemology, Metaphysics, and Ethics Epistemology: The Study of Knowledge  EPISTEMOLOGY looks at the extent and reliability of our knowledge, truth, and logic, and whether knowledge is possible  Gail Stenstad, a feminist philosopher – she contrasts theoretical thinking, with feminist “anarchic thinking” o Theoretical or male thinking: there is only one truth, one correct theory o Anarchic thinking: truth is many and that opposing views can be equally valid and true  Monotheism: the belief that there is just one God and that any beliefs in other gods should be rejected Metaphysics: The Study of Reality or Existence  METAPHYSICS looks at ultimate or the most general characteristics of reality or existence o The place of humans in the universe, the purpose and nature of reality, and the nature of mind, self, and consciousness. The existence of God, the destiny of the universe, and the immortality of the soul  Theory: DETERMINISM – all things and all human beings are unfree because everything that occurs happens in accordance with some regular pattern or law o d’Holbach: everything is determined by causes we do not control, so we are not free  VS. Determinism Frankl, in a Nazi prison, saw humans as being ultimately free  Hindu: KARMA: humans can be both free and determined o Karma, means action or deed, consists of the accumulation of a person’s past deeds o Freedom is choosing now within a situation that is determined by our past Ethics: The Study of Morality  Ethics, the study of morality, asks about our moral obligations and moral virtues; our moral principles; what is morally good; and the morality of behaviors, social policies, and social institutions  Gnadhi, we should selflessly harm no living thing and passively resist evil without violence o Ahimsa, nonviolence  Browne, selfishness is and ought to be everyone’s policy o EGOISM  Rachels, satisfaction in helping others if not selfishness 1.4 THE VALUE OF PHILOSOPHY  Why devote all this time and effort to study philosophy? o Plato’s the Myth of the Cave: the value of philosophy of that through it we achieve freedom – freedom from assumptions we have unquestioningly accepted from others, and freedom to decide for ourselves what we believe about ourselves and our place in the universe o PHILOSOPHICAL KNOWLEDGE MAKES UR FREE The Buddha: Freedom from the Wheel of Existence  Buddha: wheel of birth, suffering death, and rebirth  Each living thing, when it dies, is reincarnated in another living thing, its new condition determined by its past action, or karma Maslow: Actualizing Needs  Maslow: humans have “maintenance needs” and “actualizing needs” o Philosophy helps fulfill actualizing needs  Carl Rogers: the fully functioning person o “Self-actualized”  Characteristics of the self-actualized o The ability to form one’s opinions and beliefs o Profound self-awareness o Flexibility o Creative o Clearer, well-thought-out value systems in morality, the arts, politics and so on  Aristotle: happiness is found by developing abilities that satisfy our higher level needs, which are satisfied by exercising our reason and making reasonable choices. Philosophy develops these o Happiness if ultimately an activity of what is noblest and best in us: our reason o The happy life is ultimately found in a self-realization that is rooted in the development of our philosophic wisdom and understanding, and the development of our ability to satisfy our desires and express our emotions in a reasonable way Other Benefits of Philosophy  Philosophy helps us to be more aware, to understanding the history of thought and to think critically Philosophy: A Male Bias?  Janice Moulton, Genevieve Lloyd The Price of Philosophy **In study philosophy we risk having the weaknesses of our personal and cultural beliefs and assumptions exposed, but this risk is worth taking, considering the value of philosophy. Because philosophy has had many “male tendencies,” it is especially important for women to philosophize now Unit2 HUMAN NATURE 2.1 WHY DOES YOUR VIEW OF HUMAN NATURE MATTER?  WHAT KIND OF A BEING AM I? – Human Nature: what a human being is – will profoundly affect how you see yourself, how you see others and how you live  Psychologists (Freud) claimed humans are cruel, aggressive, and selfish  Philosophers Hobbes and Schlick claimed that humans act only out of self-interest and are material bodies  **Thomas Hobbes (British) o Materialist o The antisocial desire for power over others is what mainly motivates human beings  **Moritz Schlick (European) o Psychological egoism  Human beings are made so that they can act only out of self-interest  People always choose the option that giv
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