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Final

Final Exam Notes 1-12

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Department
Philosophy
Course
PP110
Professor
N/ A
Semester
Fall

Description
Consequentialists ethical theorieshold that a morally right action is one that produces more good and fewer bad consequences than any other action Split into egoist and utilitarianism theories No actions are intrinsically immoral Ethical egoisma morally right action is one that produces more good and fewer bad consequences for oneself than any other action Hedonism egoists Epicurusclaim that good consequences are those that produce pleasure for onself whereas bad consequences are those that produce pain Other egoists argue that good consequences produce knowledge power or selfrealization Utilitarianismclaims that a morally right action is one that produces more good and fewer bad consequences for everyone than any other action Bentham utilitarian autoicon good consequences consist of happiness or pleasure and bad consequences consist of unhappiness or pain the quantity of pleasure produced by an action is measured by its intensity length certainty likelihood to produce more pleasure etc Millswe should take into consideration the quality of the pleasurequalitative issues Moorenew version of utilitarianismidealother goods such as knowledge beauty and life have intrinsic value Arne Naessnature actually has a dignity or intrinsic value that cannot be measured in the way that utilitarianism requires He also argues that certain natural habitats are living entities and as such can claim equal moral status to that of human beings Act utilitarianismthe right action is the one that itself produces more pleasure and less pain for everyone than any other action Rule utilitarianismthe right action is the one that follows those moral rules that will produce more pleasure and less pain if followed by everyone Taylorother act utilitarians argue that because all sexual activity including incest homosexuality produces more pleasure and less pain than any other action all sexual activity can be morally right Taylor claims it is impossible for utilitarianism to measure and compare the value of living in one culture with the value of living in another culture Ramsey Colloquium other rule utilitarians argue that moral rules that prohibit divorce adultery and homosexuality produce more pleasure and less pain than other rules so its wrong to engage in those acts Ursula K Le Guinasks us to consider what we would think of a world in which perfect happiness for everyone is purchased at the cost of the continuous torment of a single lonely child Peter Singer utilitarianargues the utilitarian theory implies we have an obligation to feed the starving people of foreign countries even if this means doing without luxuries He also argues our obligation not to inflict pain on animals is equal to our obligation not to inflict comparable pain on humans Gloverall that matters is how humans are affected by decisions Nonconsequentialist theorymorality of an action depends on factors other than consequences Divine command theory and Kants categorical imperative theory Divine Command Theorymorally right action is the one that God commands Either scripture or natural laws Natural Law Ethicshumans should live accordingly to nature Originally founded by Zeno around 300 BCE and was followed by the Stoics in particular the philosopher Epictetus Began with the ancient GreeksAquinas believed in natural law ethicsprinciple of double effectwhen an action has both a good and a bad effectit is morally permissible to perform the action and allow the bad effect so long as ones intention is aimed at the good effect and not the bad John Finnisthought we should explain Aquinass four fundamental goods and expand them to seven life knowledge aesthetic experience friendship practical reasonableness and religion Claims that sexual acts that exclude the possibility of procreation are unnatural Levyargue that sexual acts are not necessarily wrong when they exclude procreation but only when they destroy a basic human good Contract Theory of Moralityrules for morality are established by us we are rational but selfinterested creatures who are able to devise and to reach agreement on a set of rules designed by us so that we can live together fruitfully and peacefully Autonomy of the will Kanta person should choose for himself the moral principles he will follow To be a good person one must do what one believes all human beings ought to do Heteronomyallowing someone or something else to decide the moral principles that one will follow Kants Categorical Imperativethe basic principle of moralityto be a morally good person I must never do something unless it is what I believe everyone ought to do in other words it is morally wrong for me to do something unless it is something that I am willing to have everyone do and so something I believe everyone could do Every human being is an end in himselfa person whose capacity to choose for himself must be respected so we should always treat people as ends in themselvesas persons whose capacity to choose for themselves must be respectedand not only use them as means to achieve our own goals Kantsuicide lying failing to develop ones talents and failing to help those in need are all morally wrong
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