Alan Turing- Turing Test and Imitation Game: Design a fair test to determine whether a machine is
actually thinking, and not merely simulating thinking. 1) not impose requirements that are too strong
(poetry) 2) Not to make requirements too weak (intimate objects pass) 3) no requirements that cannot
be understood well enough to tell if something meets them (consciousness).
AI (weak and strong)- Strong Artificial Intelligence: a machine that can actually think is believed to have
strong AI. Weak Artificial Intelligence: a machine that can only simulate thinking is thought to have weak
Arthur Eddington- he has a theory of the two tables. The common sense world is the view of the world
derived from sense experience. Suppose that when our common sense view of the world and a
scientifically informed of the world differ, then preference must be given to the scientific picture. View
on how perception works: our sense give us a fault representation of the world- a distorted picture.
Atheist- They do not believe that God exists, and they do not think it is rational to believe that God
Atoms- all matter consists of simple, indestructible parts called ‘atoms’ (meaning can’t be cut) which
have no parts themselves. All change- the flux- consists of rearrangements or recombination’s of the
atoms. The atoms are continually being reshuffled, and entering into new arrangement.
Banal- so lacking in originality as to e mundane or boring. The banality of evil- evil possesses neither
depth nor any domestic dimension. It can overgrow and lay waste to the whole world precisely because
it spreads like a fungus on the surface that is its banality.
Basic Belief- we must show that we can have some beliefs that can be used to support (justify) our other
beliefs, but which themselves do not need the support of any further beliefs. Beliefs that are able to play
this role are foundational.
Bertrand Russell- appearance and reality. What is perceived is always relative to the condition and
perspective of the observer. (1) the perceived colour (shape, texture, etc) of the table varies with the
condition or perspective of the observer. (2) so, the perceived colour is not independent of the
observer, and is not something which is inherent in the table. (3) thus, the real table is not the same as
what we immediately experience y sight or touch and what we directly see and feel is merely
Chauvinism- this means that the theory as the consequence that any creature who is not physically very
like us (who does not have the same sort of brain, or is not capable of having the same cot of brain-
states) cannot have any of the same mental states we have.
Closure of physical laws
Cogito- Descartes first and most important belief is this: “I am, I exist”. Elsewhere he expresses the
central ideas as ‘I think , therefore I am’ (in its well-known Latin formations: Cogito ergo sum), and this
central idea is usually referred to simply as the Cogito.
Constancy- opposite to Flux. David Hume- Argument on personal identity- claims that we have no self. There only is a continually
changing succession of various different mental states. Says that we have no experience of a self so
therefore we have no idea of a self. Hume called contents of consciousness perceptions= Impressions
(our immediate passions, sensations and emotions) and Ideas ( copies or faint images of impressions,
such as recalling any of our immediate impressions). Argument on Reasoning and Experience- 3
arguments: (1) all knowledge of matter of fact beyond our present experience depends on our
knowledge of cause and effect. (2) all knowledge of cause and effect depends on knowledge that the
future will resemble the past. (3) we cannot know that the future will resemble the past (4) we can have
no knowledge of cause and effect. (5) we can have no knowledge of matters of fact beyond our present
experience. Hume thinks that his skeptical argument cannot be answered- we cannot from skepticism.
Deism- believe that God exists and that this belief can be given a rational justification.
Democritus- is perhaps the best known of the second wave of materialists, who were called Atomists.
He proposed a view of the world that was still conspicuously materialist , but which allowed for both
flux and constancy to co-exist.
Derek Parfit- brain transplants into another body and they would be the same person who had the brain
previously because all of the memories are there. What if half of a brain was taken and put in a brainless
body? Would both f these people become you because you both will have the same memories. Three
answer: (1) both people are you-contradiction- both can’t be you- different lives, etc. (2)only one is
really you- doesn’t really make sense because both people will have the same memories (3) neither are
you- does make sense because that would mean that the operation is as bad as death and this can’t be
because I am still me. Parfit believes none of these explanations to be true.
Diotima- we assume that a man is the same person in his old age as in his infancy. And not only his
body, for the same thing happens to his soul. His pleasures, desires etc., are not the same through-out
life. Consistent to a view like Heraclitus- we are always changing.
Direct Realist Theory of Perception- we perceive ordinary physical objects, which exist independently of
our perception of them. It is sometimes called the ‘naive realist’ to capture the fact that its critics think it
does nothing more than express the views of uniformed common sense. In this view, we see, smell,
hear, taste, and feel just what common sense says we do.
Dualism- this is the view that body and mind are two very different sorts of substances- the body is
material (physical) the mind is immaterial (nonphysical).
Eliminativism- there are actually no such things as tables and trees; there are only mental images of
those things. In effect, the idea that there is an ‘external’ world is simply a mistake, and we are all the
permanent victims of an enduring three-dimensional illusion. Life is but a dream.
Empiricism- the view and justification for belief derived from sense experience (perception). The
Empiricist Theory of Knowledge: all justifications for beliefs come from experience. The Empiricist
Theory of Concepts: all ideas (concepts) originate in experience.
Epiphenomenalism- a form of dualism according to which bodies can affect minds, but minds cannot
affect bodies. Essence/Existence- the essence is what- among the various characteristics that things of the same kind
have in common- makes many different things of the same kind (e.g. the essence of piety is what makes
all the many pious actions to be pious). The essence can be used as a standard by which to judge
whether any particular thing is of that kind (e.g. we can use it to tell if some action really is a pious
Evil Demon- let us suppose that some evil genius or demon not less powerful than deceitful, has
employed his whole energies in deceiving me. I shall consider that the heavens, the earth, colours,
shapes, sounds, and all other external things, are nothing but illusions and dreams by which this demon
has laid traps for my credulity.
Explanation- of someone’s beliefs tell us why they have the belief, but it may have no direct bearing on
whether the belief is true, there are perfectly good explanations for false beliefs as well as for true ones.
Fallacy of Circular reasoning
Fallacy of Equivocaation- argument against the Relativity of Perception. That is, it uses the single phrase
‘what is perceived’ to refer to two very different things. (a) the objects we perceive, and (b) how those
objects appear to us. It then argues fallaciously- from the agreed upon fact that ‘how objects appear’
differs with our condition and perspective, to the conclusion that ‘what objects we perceive’ differs.
Flux- the idea that everything is constantly altering or changing.
Functionalism- a form of materialism that identifies our mental states with the functional roles occupied
by, or functions (jobs) performed by, physical states of the brain.
Fundamental Project- my project of becoming a self. This project rests on an original choice, the
attempt to become a self is the attempt to become God.
Fyodor Dostoyevsky- Rebellion. The Problem of Evil- (1) we can think that evil is justifiable or excusable
(2) we can give up belief in God (3) we can give up the belief that the world and our place in it make
rational sense. Evil man kills boy who hurt his dog.
Hannah Arendt- The Banality of Evil. Arendt’s view was that many of the greatest contemporary moral
evils are a result of our living morally superficial lives, acting thoughtlessly, doing what is easiest, doing
what our superiors expect of us, and doing what will get us our next promotion. The intentions and
choices behind such actions are banal or mundane, not evil, and there is no realistic sense in which
these evil doers are choosing good or evil.
Heraclitus- one of the early materialists that believed fire was the most fundamental element (water,
earth and air). Believed it was not possible to step into the same river twice and that the sun is new each
day (every day the sun ceases to exist and a new one is created in its place).
Inconsistent Triad- (1) Dualism- the body is physical, and the mind is nonphysical. (2) Interactionism- the
mind affects body and the body affects mind. (3) Closure of Physical Laws- al physical changes can be completely explained by their physical causes. If any two of them are true than the third is false.
Infinite regress of justification- the simple thought is that nothing can justify a belief except another
justified belief. These considerations lead to an infinite regress of beliefs; each needed to give
justification to the beliefs that come after them, but each needing to receive justification from other
beliefs that come before them. That means that no belief will be justified unless there is an infinite
number of other beliefs- also justified- that precede it.
Interactionist dualism- a form of dualism to which minds can affect bodies, and bodies can affect minds.
Invalid- not all valid arguments are sound, since an argument can be valid and stil have one or more
false premises. So in deciding whether an argument is valid, you should not concern yourself with
whether the premise are actually true, you only need to ask, if the premises were true, then would the
conclusion have to be true. If yes the argument is valid, if no then it is invalid.
Ivan Karamazov- see Fyodor Dostoyevsky
Jean-Paul Satre- came up with the following: