1. A strong agnostic (不不不不 不)
Neither believes nor disbelieves in god’s existence
Thinks neither theism nor atheism can be justified by reason
Thinks there is something wrong with being wither a theistic or an atheist.
2. A popular agnostic will necessarily be a philosophical agnostic; but a philosophical is not
necessary a popular agnostic. (False)
3. The cosmological argument(不不不不不) argues that the existence of the world demonstrates the
existence of transcendent(不不不不,不) caused of the world.
4. St. Anselm is prominently associated with the ontological (不不不) argument.
5. Although religions are typically complex systems of theory and practice, including both
myths and rituals, philosophers tend to concentrate on evaluating religious truth claims.
6. Atheism(不不不) is the position that affirms the nonexistence of god.
7. The principal point on which desists, as a group, disagree with traditional theists, as a
group, concerns whether god provides special revelations.
8. A contingent being is a being that could have failed to exit.
9. Pantheists(不不不不) reject the distinction between god and creation.
10. In a broad sense, an atheist is anyone who disbelieves in any divine being, including a
11. All deists deny that god loves us. (false)
12. In strict philosophical sense, agnosticism is the view that human reason is incapable of
justifying belief in either god’s existence or god’s nonexistence.
13. People should distinguished two kinds of evil: natural evil and moral evil.
14. We understand god to be a perfect being, something than which nothing greater can be
15. Ontological argument tries to show that a cosmic designer must exist(False)
16. Mere theism is the core of beliefs common to western monotheisms(不不不).
1. Strict natural theology allows only deductive reasoning and premises which are evident.
2. Most critics of natural theology argue that one or more arguments of natural theology are
3. Thomas Aquinas only practices natural theology via the strict conception. (False)
4. According to Kierkegaard: The highest truths can only be attained by infinite subjective passion that is itself
paradoxical(不不不) from the objective point of view.
Natural theology is not only useless but an impediment (不不) to attaining religious truth.
5. Prominent strands of atheology:
the concept of god is incoherent.(不不不不不)
the existence of god is incompatible with things we know about the world.
6. Thomas Aquinas thought the truth of the trinity (不不不不不不,不不,不不) and the incarnation(不不不不不)
cannot be discovered by unaided human reason.
7. A deductive argument: if its premises be true, then it is impossible for its conclusion to be
8. Broad natural theology accepts
Both deductive and nondeductive forms of reasoning.
both evident and nonevident premises.
9. The traditional, strict understanding of natural theology is base on Aristotle’s science.
10. Natural theology contrasts (不不) best with revelationbased theology.
11. Richard Swinburne is an example of someone who follows the strict conception of natural
12. Kant’s criticism of ontological argument is: existence is not a real predicate.
1. Lewis thought we all have a sense of the law of nature which we cannot get rid of it, all of
us break this law at one time or another.
2. Erik Wielenberg argues ultimate self sacrifice(不不不不) is possible only if there is no divine
3. Wielenberg argues that there is nothing to admire in the actions of people who believe in
4. For Lewis, the moral law goes beyond a mere description of the way things are and it is
also something of which we all, with very exceptions, are aware.
5. The 13 century French city of Belziers is an example of religious faith inspiring moral
6. Lewis says we all under a moral law which we cannot get rid of. 7. According to Stephen T. David, whether it is possible to give a compelling account of
morality in purely naturalistic terms is the deepest issue in assessing the moral argument.
8. Lewis responded to moral relativism with the differences among the moral codes of
different societies don't amount to a total difference.
9. All atheist philosophers are relativists. (False)
10. Normative cultural relativism states that what is right and wrong really does vary across
11. According to Lewis, the truth of god’s existence could be determined by examining our
personal subjective experiences.
12. A subjective truth is best defined as a truth which is dependent on what one or more
13. What could constitute a “total difference” in morality?
People who runaway in battle being admires.
Selfishness being considered morally good.
People feeling proud for doublecrossing(不不) all those who had been kindest to them.
14. Descriptive moral relativism is the view that what people think is moral can vary across
different societies and times.
15. Normative cultural relativism stated that what is right and wrong really does vary across
16. According to Lewis, science was the key to discovering which of the main cosmologies
was correct. (False)
17. John Beversluis argues Lewis’s moral argument commits affirming the consequent. (不不不不)
1. There are as many even numbers (2, 4, 6…) as there are natural numbers( 1, 2, 3…).
2. According to the second law of thermodynamics(不不不):
Processes taking place in a closed system不不不不不不 always tend toward a state of equilibrium.
3. Regarding Craig’s example of an actually infinite library with alternating(不不不) red and black
The whole library has as many members as the same library with all the red books removed
An actually infinite amount of books could be taken out of the library, and t