PO102 Study Guide - Final Guide: Territorial Disputes In The South China Sea, United Nations Convention On The Law Of The Sea, Nautical Mile

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PO102 Exam Prep
Terms
Define and state the significance of each, relate to bigger ideas, examples, readings. Is it part of a larger
idea? Where does it appear in the course?
Common good
What is good fo the politial ouit as a hole
o a strong economy
o Maintaining order
o Security
o Access to education and programs
o Taking care of the environment
Can be very difficult to achieve given diversity in community- clashing values and priorities and
costs and benefits are distributed unevenly. Do you want to pay to solve homelessness? What
about putting a carbon tax on gasoline to achieve environmental goals
What may be good for the community as a whole may not be viewed as desirable by individuals
or and group sin the community
Individualist perspective
View human beings as acting primarily in accordance with their own interests
o Therefore, it is naïve or hopelessly idealistic to expect people to deliberately act for the
common good- especially if it involves sacrificing their own interests
Critics argue that humans are social beings who flourish through harmonious interactions with
other.
Also that people engage in politics for many reasons, not just to advance their own interests
Ex) people often promote values they think are important
Those who hold this perspective argue that if everyone was free to pursue their own interest
that this would lead to the best results for the community as a whole
Pluralist systems
A political system in which a large number of groups representing a wide variety of interest are
able to influence the decisions of government. Government tries to satisfy as many groups as
possible and no group has a dominant influence on government.
Does’t eessail ahiee the oo good eithe
Common good today vs in the future
Question: Just because rapid economic growth may be good for people today- does that mean
we ignore the harm it will cause 50-100 years from now in the form of climate change? Those
geeatios do’t hae a oie..
Examples:
Haitian earthquake
o People aoss the old ee iteested i aig ad helpig ee though it did’t
affect them
Cost Benefits unequally distributed
o Even if people agree that reducing pollution is good the costs of doing so fall more
heavily on factory owners and automobile users than people who can walk to work etc
o Snowden articl
How can we achieve it?
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Can the government achieve it?
Democracy often looked upon as the ideal way to achieve the common good as it reflects the
opinions of many
Can sometimes be used as a mask for ruthless leaders to achieve personal goals and commit
atrocities
o Stalin/Mussolini/Hitler
Complex Interdependence and globalization may change the meaning of the common good as
cultures cross and the world becomes closer
o But sense of identity in being Caadia is stoge tha sa a gloal idetit ight o
Also look at things like sustainable development ie the common good today may be working to
grow the economy but it may compromise future generations because of its effect on climate
change
Significance: Shows how difficult politics is as it is impossible to make everyone happy all the time aka
eah the oo good ut ipotat that e keep stiig fo it egadless. Gloalizatio also
makes it more difficult to achieve. Politics is about making decisions for the entire community but the
common good is hard to achieve
Free Rider Problem
A problem with voluntary collective action that results because an individual can enjoy
the benefits of group action without contributing
If EVERYONE follows this othig ill get doe though…
Power can be used as a means to enforce it
Example:
o If a road is being built from itize’s donations some citizens may choose to not
contribute and the road will still be built. However, if enough citizens follow this
self-interested model- the road will never be built. The government would use
coercive power in this scenario (ie taxes) to achieve goals that benefit society as
a whole.
The Tragedy of the Commons
o The overuse of common goods/resources
o Ie a field for grazing too many sheep will overgraze, ruin the field and
everyone will suffer
o Fish in a river too many people fish until there are none left
o Can only be solved by developing a sense of community, shared values and
mechanisms to monitor and enforce he use of the resource to ensure that no
cheating occurs
o Cooperation can be a solution to counteract self interest if there is trust and
discussion among the members (and accountability I think)
Political Legitimacy
Acceptance by the members of a political community that those in positions of
authority have the right to govern.
Usually backed by force and requires resources to maintain
Is a powerful resource for governments etc to achieve their goals
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EXAMPLE: the police in the Dominican technically had authority as they were in
positions of power due to the position they held BUT they may not be seen as
legitimate because they are corrupt and therefore not be followed/listened to
A legitimacy crisis: can occur even in a democratic community. While bad govs can be
voted out if the new gov is persistently ineffective people may question the legitamcy
of their entire country and its processes/institutions
Power
Somebody who has influence over others and ca ake the do thigs the ould’t
normally do
Achieving an objective by influencing behavior of others
Often involves a relationship but depends on the circumstances
3 Faces
Ability to Affect Decisions
o Coercion: threats/harmful consequences; law and order is based off this system-
think speeding tickets, jail time, etc
o Inducements: bribes and rewards; subsidize, tax breaks, bonus marks etc
o Persuasion: can be convinced if presented with a logical argument; ie editorials
o Leadership: about the PERSON and not the position they hold ie; Oprah, Ghandi
etc but not Prof Shamsie because she has power because she is a professor not
eause she’s Yasie
Ability to influence the political agenda/ensure issues are NOT raised
o If its in the interest for something to remain off the political agenda
o Ie: powerful Dominican man that paid off the family of the person his son hit
with a car self interest
Ability to affect the dominant ideas in society
o Celebs, media, corporations
o Rais i the ’s/’s
o Women belong in the home
o its oo sese eas soeoe is eetig poe ad it’s a soial ostut
that is’t eessail ight
Distribution of Power
a hae poe oe o poe to
Power Resources
o Wealth
o Control over information/expertise
o Official positions ie prime minister
o People Power- ability to mobilize
o Ability to vote
Significance in how we use power
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