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PO225 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: James Bowdoin, Daniel Shays, Benjamin Lincoln

Political Science
Course Code
Barry Kay
Study Guide

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Constitutional convention( Philadelphia host)
- A meeting full of famous leaders like James Madison and alexander
Hamilton where gathered to revise the articles of confederation or
better known as the constitution.
- 1787
- The first policy purposed was the Virginia plan the second was the
New jersey Plan
ostrong central authority making them federalist
oEdmond Randolph was creator
oLegislative branches should be based on voting and population
oVirginia was the biggest state at the time so they said that everyone
would benefit if the capital was in Virginia
oWilliam Patterson then purposed the counter plan ,which was
called the New Jersey Plan.
Purposal for a lose confederation
Anti federalist
He spoke in the interests of the state.
Equal representation of states
Articles of confederation ( 1781)
- a constitution during the revolution period that was used.
- It was an article put out to inform everyone that the revolution was
happening and that the 13 colonies should join together and form a
whole so that they can have their sovereignty
- To amend any thing from the articles all 13 states must agree
Honeymoon period
- A candidates inauguration into presidency comes with a period in the first
little while called the honey moon period. This period consists of high public
appeal and the allowance from the people for the president to do what he said
he would in his platform election speaches. Until the president starts to take
up controversial issues he will remain in the positive spot light. Congress is
inclined to support some of the president initiatives. When Gerald ford came

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into presidency he only had a very hort honeymoon period because citizens
were still outraged and untrusting from the water gate incident
President John F. Kennedy extended the concept by calling on the Soviet Union to extend him a
honeymoon period as a goodwill gesture. One of the shortest honeymoons on record was that of
Gerald Ford, whose pardon of his predecessor, Richard M. Nixon, for all Watergate crimes sparked
public outrage and led to a 30-point drop in popularity in public opinion polls after his first month in
Purple states
- 10 states
- swing states are normally the states that have large populations filled with
both republican and liberal voters.
- Huge victories have been because of what we call the states that are the
“tipping points” to winning the election
- also known as swing states.
-is a state in which no single candidate or party has overwhelming
support in securing that state's electoral college votes.
-a winner-take-all system where the candidate who wins the most
popular votes in a state wins all of that state's electoral votes.
This way, presidential candidates have no incentive to spend time
or resources in states they are likely to win or lose by a sizable
-the electoral system gives swing states arbitrarily large power in
determining the result of an election, and therefore receive an
undeservedly large proportion of attention and campaign funds.
- florida is one of these states and it as an interesting senate race
- has the highest population that moved from the north to the south and
boomers retire
- FL is becoming increasingly democratic
Peace treaty, 1783
-British official recognizes America
- idea of a friendship pact
1. - Acknowledging the United States (viz. the Colonies) to be free,
sovereign and independent states, and that the British Crown and all heirs
and successors relinquish claims to the Government, property, and
territorial rights of the same, and every part thereof;
2. Establishing the boundaries between the United States and British North
3. Granting fishing rights to United States fishermen in the Grand Banks, off
the coast of Newfoundland and in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence;
4. Recognizing the lawful contracted debts to be paid to creditors on either

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5. The Congress of the Confederation will "earnestly recommend" to state
legislatures to recognize the rightful owners of all confiscated lands
"provide for the restitution of all estates, rights, and properties, which have
been confiscated belonging to real
6. United States will prevent future confiscations of the property of Loyalists;
7. Prisoners of war on both sides are to be released and all property left by
the British army in the United States unmolested (including slaves);
8. Great Britain and the United States were each to be given perpetual
access to the Mississippi River;
9. Territories captured by Americans subsequent to treaty will be returned
without compensation;
Ratification of the treaty was to occur within six months from the signing by
the contracting parties.
Shay’s rebellion
o- Daniel Shay had been a colonel in the Revolutionary war
oA number of veterans found they were in financial hardship
oIn order to prevent foreclosure, gets a group of soldiers together and
commands the town of Springfield, MA
oJudge can’t sit in court and issue foreclosure notices
oTiming is critical because it happens a few months before Philadelphia
oFixates the people in Philadelphia on fear of mob rule
oSense of the fear of the tyranny of the mob is important to think about in
terms of the convention
oThe word democracy does not appear once in the Constitution because it
might denote the meaning of mob rule
oDetermination of where the capital is going to be—Philadelphia was the
most commonly used one
oWherever the capital was, there would be a natural advantage to the
people in that place (people could intimidate the conventions being held
oThe ultimate capital was put in the swampland across the Potomac River
in what is now Washington, D.C. (called Federal City then)
oThey put it where people didn’t live so the local residents couldn’t use
their proximity to intimidate them
The impact on this on creating the Constitution cannot be overstated
Shays's Rebellion, 1786–87, armed insurrection by farmers in W
Massachusetts against the state government. Debt-ridden farmers, struck
by the economic depression that followed the American Revolution,
petitioned the state senate to issue paper money and to halt foreclosure of
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