Major Ideologies.docx

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Political Science
Christopher Anderson

Major Ideologies Conservatism Liberalism Social Democracy Individual/ Society -believe in the -individual still a focus -believes in rational of individual -competition individual still -born free -increase emphasis on -society is extremely -inequality equality important We are not born equal -natural inequality isn’t -cooperation/solidarity in a substantive way ideal -equalitarian= econ -competition -progressive vales -equality comes from -beliefs in individual (change) soc. and poli. factors rationalizing to self- -cooperative efforts actualize -traditions/norms= stability. Rights/ Freedoms -individual rights over -individual liberties -pos/social liberty collective and social liberties -nationalism, private -negative freedoms (pos/neg) sector -formal equality -ex. Legal aid for -create restraints from -private sphere everyone, pos. lib. equality (property) -more intervention -social justice so a just -individual sense of -private property still outcome resp. ex. I’ll take care good, but intervention of the poor because I appropriate want to not because I -social fairness am forced. -undoing hierarchy The State -small state -welfare state -intervention state -free/ puritanism Intervention in many -mixed economy market aspects of life -changing -freedom from gov. -combo of individual -internationalism regulation beyond the comp. and groups min. needs -min legal regulations -more open to change -gov. led regulated =more open to -minimal estate questioning -cannot defy the state -internationalism Liberalism focuses on the ideal of individual liberty. The coercion of individuals should be minimized. In the perspective of liberalism, the common good is best achieved by allowing individuals to pursue their own interests, develop their own capabilities and morality, and act on their own values. Those with power are likely to use that power for their own interests. Thus, limiting power, protecting individual rights and freedoms, and establishing the rule of law are important means to achieve the objectives of liberalism. A peaceful and prosperous world can be developed through the promotion of tolerance, adherence to laws, and the facilitation of global interactions through free trade and the free interaction of ideas. For classical liberals, the free market, equal legal rights, and limited government ensure that individuals are not subject to the arbitrary and oppressive power of government and other institutions. Reform liberals are concerned with achieving meaningful freedom for all and believe that government can play a useful role in removing the obstacles to individual development. As well, reform liberals favour the promotion of equality of opportunity so that individuals can compete on a more equal basis and are rewarded according to merit. Conservatism, developed particularly in response to the French Revolution. Because of its pe
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