Political Science Exam Review

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Political Science
Christopher Anderson

Political  Science  Exam  Review   1.          Aristotle   • Man  is  by  nature  a  political  animal   • Our  survival  is  political  because  it  is  linked  to  how  we  as  humans  relate  to  each   other  and  adapt  to  the  world  around  us   • Man  is  rational;  he  can  self-­‐reflect   • Politics  is  the  primary  way  to  find  the  good  life  for  everyone   • Ancient  Greece  is  at  war,  he  wants  to  solve  the  problem   • He  wanted  to  find  best  politic  so  he  collects  constitutions  from  different  politics   and  studies  them   • Two  defining  factors   o How  many  people  rule?  One,  few,  many?   o  Are  decisions  made  on  behalf  of  all  politic?     • Governing  ideally  involved  working  toward  achieving  a  good  society  in  which   citizens  could  lead  a  virtuous  life     Rulers   Government  for  the  good  of     All  Citizens           The  Rulers   (Public  Interest)   (Self-­‐Interest)       One   Monarchy   Tyranny     Few   Aristocracy   Oligarchy     Many   Polity   Democracy     2.  Methodology  (normative/empirical  political  analysis)   1.  A  body  of  methods,  rules,  and  postulates   Employed  by  a  discipline;  a  particular   Procedure  or  set  of  procedures.       2.  The  analysis  of  the  principles  or   Procedures  of  inquiry  in  a  particular  field.       Normative  Analysis:   • establishing  moral  norms  or  principles   • tend  to  contain  prescriptive  words  such  as;  should,  ought,  must   • concerned  with  the  discussion  of  ideals   • what  should  be  done  or  avoided  in  the  area  of  politics   • includes  examining  ideas  about  how  the  community  should  be  governed  and   what  values  should  be  pursued  though  politics   • Normative  theory:  a  theory  that  inquiries  into  ethical  questions  and  considers   what  is  moral,  good  and  true    Empirical  Political  Analysis:   • Description  and  explanation  of  observable  events,  structures,  or  patterns  of   behavior   • Knowledge  is  derived  from  what  is  observed   • Experienced  or  validated  by  experimentation   • Attempts  to  explain  seemingly  distinct  events  through  observation  and   comparison   • Explaining  various  aspects  of  politics,  particularly  by  using  careful  observation   and  comparison  to  develop  generalizations   • To  develop  testable  theories  that  will  help  us  to  understand  how  politics  works   3.  Behavioural  Revolution   • Focus  on  behaviour  of  political  actors  (as  opposed  to  institutions  within  which   they  operate)   • Commitment  to  uncovering  patterns  or  regularities  in  political  behaviour,  to   creating  a  science  of  politics  based  on  testable  propositions   • Claim  of  objectivity   • It  is  impossible  to  remain  objective   • Two  different  aspects  of  politics   o Psychological   § Political  behaviour  appears  as  thought,  perception,  judgement,   attitudes  and  beliefs   § Seen  as  the  construct  of  personality,  expectations  and   motivations  that  explain  individuals  and  group  responds  to   environment  and  stimuli     § Leaders  are  found  to  demonstrate  a  higher  rate  of  energy  output,   alterness,  originality,  personal  motivation,  self  confidence,   decisiveness,  knowledge  and  fluency  of  speech  than  do  followers.   § Images  and  issues  can  be  crafted  to  appeal  to  the  widest  possible   range  of  voters.   § The  psychological  manipulation  of  voter  preferences  today  is  built   into  the  campaign  strategies  of  most  candidates  for  public  office.     o Social     § Found  in  actions  such  as  voting,  protesting,  campaigning,  lobbying   and  caucusing.   § Best  place  to  witness  is  at  a  leadership  convention  (where  they   pick  the  leaders  of  political  parties)   § Many  different  tactics  are  used  to  sway  the  parties  one  way  or   another;  food,  fireworks,  music  and  many  different   billboards/posters  with  their  names  are  used  to  woo  the   delegates.   § Having  the  “sizzle  factor”,  the  image,  and  win-­‐ability  supersede   the  issues  raised  by  a  party  and  the  policies  debated   § At  these  conventions  politics  cuts  across  many  levels  of  social   conduct:  imitation,  frivolity,  fads,  mimicry,  and  emotion  are  as   fundamental  to  political  behaviour  as  are  decision  making,   elections,  authority  and  consensus    4.  Essentially  Contested  Concepts   Concepts  can:   • Help  us  to  describe,  understand  and  explain  political  phenomena.   • Help  us  to  not  simply  interpret  the  world  but  to  seek  to  change  it.   • Hinder  us  by  closing  off  avenues  of  investigation.    Concept;  something  conceived  in  the  mind,  thought  or  notion   • An  abstract  or  generic  idea  generalized  from  particular  instances    Essentially  contested  concepts   • Concept  about  which  despite  some  consensus  as  to  its  basic  definition,  there  can   be  widespread  disagreement   • How  best  to  identify  or  realize  it  in  practice  disagreement  that  cannot  be  settled   by  appeal  to  empirical  evidence,  linguistic  usage,  or  the  canons  of  logic  alone   Conceptualizing  can  be  difficult:   Complexity:  the  world  is  really  compless,  how  can  one  describe  an  abstract   thought?   Change:  the  world  is  constantly  changing   Value:  your  values  shape  what  you  believe  is  right  and  wrong;  everyone  has  a   different  view   *Can’t  take  a  picture  of  justice       Walter  Bryce  Gallie’s  concerns   Dogmatism  :   • sticking  to  what  you  believe,  with  great  passion  and  dedication,  refuse  to  accept   what  other  people  say   • ‘I  am  right  and  you’re  wrong  ‘   Relativism:   • An  avoidance  in  the  sense  of  an  issue   • Its  personal,  its  relative  to  you   • There’s  an  ideal  out  there  that  is  relative  to  yourself,  and  your  personal  beliefs   and  values   • “You  don’t  understand  me,  because  you’re  not  me”   Eclecticism:   • More  pragmatic  (realistic)  approach   5.  Power  (over/to)   Power  over:   • Power  over  someone   • Forces  that  constrain  and  direct  our  actions,  make  us  do  things  we  would  not   otherwise  do   • Focuses  our  attention  on  inequalities  in  the  distribution  of  power   • Forces  that  hold  regimes  of  inequality  in  place   • Politics  is  result  of  interplay  between  empowerment  and  disempowerment   Power  to:   • Power  to  realize  personal  or  collective  goals   • Being  empowered   • Power  ultimately  rests  in  the  hands  of  citizens  conveys  the  idea  of  “power  to”   realize  social  consensus  and  collective  goals  through  democratic  insitutions,  such   as  fair  elections  and  representative  legislative  assemblies.   • Citizens  are  supposed  to  be  able  to  decide  how  best  to  live  together  in  national   communities,  hold  their  political  leaders  accountable  for  their  actions  and  be   able  to  throw  them  out  of  office.   • Political  power  is  unevenly  divided  even  in  the  most  equalitarian  of  societies  as   well  as  among  the  international  community  of  national  states   Power   • Ability  to  achieve  an  objective  by  influencing  the  behavior  of  others   • Get  people  to  do  what  they  would  have  not  otherwise  done   • Often  involves  considerable  bargaining  and  negotiating  among  different  political   actors   • Power  can  be  exercised  through  control  of  the  political  agenda,  issues  that  are   considered  important  and  are  given  priority  in  political  deliberations   • Those  who  shape  the  dominant  ideas  in  society  have  long-­‐term  effect  on  the   politics  and  the  decisions  that  are  made  of  that  society   Ways  to  exert  political  power   • Coercion:  involves  using  fear  or  threats  of  harmful  consequences  to  achieve   an  outcome   o used  to  intimidate  you   • Inducements:  achieving  an  outcome  by  offering  a  reward  or  bribe   • Persuasion:    persuade  people  to  think  or  act  in  a  particular  way   o Truthful  information  to  encourage  people  to  act  in  accordance  with   their  own  interests  or  values   o Use  of  misleading  information  to  manipulate  people   o Manipulation,  as  exaggeration  and  selective  presentation   • Leadership:  example:  country  that  is  successful  in  providing  wealth  and   harmony  to  its  population  may  be  able  to  convince  other  countries  to  follow   its  example   The  distribution  of  Power   • Resources  that  give  individuals  groups  the  potential  to  exert  political  power  are   unequally  distributed   • Ability  to  influence  people  are  some  of  the  resources  that  can  be  used  for   advantage  in  politics   Positive  and  Negative  sides  of  power   • Power  wield  to  establish,  promote,  or  defend  systems  of  economic,  social,  and   military  domination  and  exploitation   • Tendencies  for  individuals  with  political  power  to  use  their  power  for  their  own   benefit  rather  than  for  the  good  of  the  political  community   • Arrogant  and  unresponsive  to  the  needs  and  desires  of  the  population   • Free  rider  problem:  such  objectives  may  not  be  easily  achieved  by  individuals,   but  might  achievable  by  using  the  collective  power  of  the  community  organized   by  government   6.  Three  faces  of  power   The  first  face  of  power:  Robert  Dhal   • A  has  power  over  B  to  the  extent  that  he  can  get  B  to  do  something  that  B  would   not  otherwise  do   • Power  is  not  concentrated  in  the  hands  of  a  few   • It’s  a  plurality-­‐  hands  of  many   The  Second  face  of  power:  Bachrach  &  Baratz   • A  devotes  his  energies  to  creating  or  reinforcing  social  and  political  values  and   institutional  practices   • Limit  scope  of  political  process  to  public  consideration  of  only  those  issues  which   are  comparatively  innocuous  to  A   • When  A  successfully  marginalizes  B   The  Third  Face  of  Power:  Stephen  Lukes   • A  may  exercise  power  over  B  by  getting  him  to  do  what  he  does  not  want  to   do   • But  he  also  exercises  power  over  him  by  influencing,  shaping  or  determining   his  very  wants   Elitist  approach   • Argued  that  a  select  few  in  all  societies,  manipulate  the  lever  of  government  for   their  own  advantage.   • Has  a  long  tradition  in  political  theory  and  in  the  evolution  of  political  science   • The  elite  occupy  the  most  powerful  positions  in  the  military,  religion,  economy,   politics,  and  culture.   • The  few  hold  the  power  while  the  many  do  not   • Certain  studies  often  find  that  the  elite  of  a  variety  of  sectors,  including  politics,   the  military,  the  media,  and  business,  are  overwhelmingly  white,  wealthy  and   male.  They  share  similar  background,  attend  the  same  elite  schools,  share  similar   values  and  opinions   • Elitist  Challenge  (Floyd  Hunter/  C.  Wright  Mills)   o Power  is  very  concentrated  in  the  united  states   o Political  power  is  concentrated  in  the  hands  of  a  few   o This  occupied  “strategic  command  posts  of  the  social  structure”   o This  curtailed  the  democratic  politics   o Produced  a  passive  citizenry-­‐  people  don’t  realize  the  ideals  are  not   getting  represented   Pluralist  Approach   • Argued  that  although  the  individual  remained  the  key  actor  in  democratic   politics,  the  sheer  size  and  complexity  of  modern  society  had  long  ago  ruled  out   a  democratic  politics  revolving  around  the  informed  and  active  citizen.   • The  governance  of  modern  society  is  far  too  complex  and  the  society  is  too  large   to  nurture  the  direct  political  participation  of  everyone  in  the  political  process.   Instead  the  individuals  join  groups  that  promote  their  interests   • No  one  group  is  a  permanent  player  in  pluralist  politics.  Neither  does  one  group   always  win       • Viewed  the  state  as  neutral,  serving  to  mediate  among  competing  groups  and  to   strike  compromise  and  consensus  in  public  policy   • State  processed  group  demands,  or  inputs,  and  converted  them  to  public   policies,  or  out  puts.   • Pluralist  Rejoinder  (Robert  A.  Dahl)   o Power  is  more  fluid,  its  less  static   o Always  changing   7.  Modern  Democracy   • Rule  by  many   • Characterized  by  leadership  through  selection;  elections,  constitutionalism  &  the   rule  of  law   Larry  Diamonds  components  of  Democracy   • A  political  system  for  choosing  &  replacing  the  government  through  free  &  fair   elections   • The  active  participation  of  the  people,  as  citizens,  in  politics  and  civic  life   • Protection  of  the  human  rights  of  all  citizens   • A  rule  of  law,  in  which  the  laws  and  procedures  apply  equally  to  all  citizens   Arguments  for  democracy:   • best  way  to  achieve  common  good   • interests  and  values  of  different  parts  of  the  population  are  more  likely  to  be   reflected   • more  likely  to  be  accepted  as  legitimate  by  populationà  people  have  a  role   • allows  peaceful  transition  of  power   • fulfilment  and  meaning  of  citizens  through  sharing  in  governing  community   • promotes  equality   Types  of  Democracy:   Direct:  citiznes  meet  to  discuss  and  making  governing  decisions,  generally  impractical  in   large  modern  political  communities   Liberal,  Representative:  citizens  are  free  to  vote  for  their  representatives  and   directly/indirectly  determine  who  will  lead  government,  however  citizens  are  not   involved  in  making  collective  decisions   Plebiscitary:  referendum,  initiatives  and  recall  elections  to  give  citizens  greater  control   over  collective  decisions  and  over  their  elected  representatives   Deliberative:  decisions  are  made  based  on  discussion  by  free  and  equal  citizens,  in   hopes  of  making  people  more  informed  and  more  active  citizens       8.  Ideology   • A  reasonably  consistent  system  of  political  beliefs  that  aspires  to  explain  the   world   • to  justify  certain  power  relationships,  and  to  maintain  or  transform  existing   institutions   • Not  personal,  not  random   • Always  has  to  adapt   • A  gross  simplification   • Mix  of  factual  and  moral  beliefs  about  how  things  ought  to  be   • Always  plagued  by  international  contradictions       • Ideology  to  the  left  social  democracy   o Dramatic  substantial  change   o Redesign  in  the  name  of  the  citizen   • Ideology  to  the  rightà  fascism   o Support  the  status  quo   o Keep  things  as  they  are   o Dislike  change   • Ideology  in  the  middleà  modern  liberalism             Ideology  1   Ideology  2   Ideology  3   Conservatism   Reformed  liberalism   Social  democracy   Individuals/Society   -­‐Individuals  are   -­‐individual  societies   -­‐  we  are  born  free   important   -­‐individual  rights  are   -­‐  society  is  very   -­‐Born  free   key   important,  and  its   interests   -­‐inequalities  among   -­‐element  of   individuals   competition   -­‐egalitarian  society   -­‐Natural  inequality   -­‐social  equality,   -­‐progressive  values;   overcome  social   traditional  values   -­‐Natural  completion   hierarchy   are  the  proble   -­‐Rational;  determine   -­‐progressive  values;   our  own  needs   changing   -­‐Traditions/Norms   -­‐people  are   cooperative   Rights  and  Freedoms   -­‐Individual  rights  are   positive  liberties   -­‐negative  rights  are   important   still  important   -­‐equal  opportunities   -­‐equally  empowered   -­‐  positive  liberties   -­‐emphasis  on  private   -­‐formal  equality   property   -­‐  more  equality  of   substance;  have  the   -­‐private  sphere;   -­‐social  fairness   means  to  do  these   absence  of  rules   things   -­‐private  property   -­‐substantive   equality;  minimum   -­‐individualize  sense  of   wage   responsibility   -­‐markets  are  useful   but  create  inequality   -­‐Social  justice-­‐   outcome  is  fair  as   opposed  to   procedure   The  state   -­‐Free  Market(  limited   -­‐welfare  state,  with   -­‐Mixed  economy   regulation)   private  sector   -­‐Limit  restriction  on   -­‐  Intervention  State   -­‐responsibility  to   government   involvement     figure  out  social   -­‐  Change  is   -­‐Minimalist  State   hierarchy’s   encouraged   -­‐   -­‐  state  intervention   -­‐Traditional   Authority   -­‐openness  to   change,  openness  to   -­‐  Internationalism   question   -­‐interested  in   protecting  the   territory   -­‐military,  police,  etc,   -­‐internationalism       9.  Governance   • A  dynamic  process  through  which  the  means  are  found  to  make  choices  for   collective  adaption  to  surrounding  economy  and  society   • The  organize  of  exercised  power   • Manner  in  which  we  organize  common  affairs   • Relationship  between  government  departments,  policy  network,  NGO’s,  and   powerful  private  actors  in  public  policy  making     10.  Government   • broadly  defined  as  the  administrative  organization  with  authority  to  govern   a  political  state   • a  government  more  narrowly  refers  to  the  particular   administrative  bureaucracy  in  control  of  a  state  at  a  given  time   11.  Political  Regime   • “form  of  rule”  over  given  aspects  of  human  activity   • Organized  governance  experience  contains  4  sphere   o State:  a  society  is  organized  economically,  socially,  and  politically  and   develops  coherence  over  time   o Society:  society  shapes  its  state;  determines  structure  of  authority,  and   influence  political  institutions   o Market:  includes  production,  exchange  and  distributionàlink  wealth  and   political  power  to  market   o Global  Insertion:  all  countiries-­‐  their  respective  societies,  states,  and   markets-­‐  occupy  certain  positions  in  larger  international  or  global  context   § International  state  system  and  economic  system   Authoritarian  regime:   • Rule  by  few   o Dictatorships,  totalitarian,  absolute  monarchies   Democratic  regimes:   • Rule  by  the  many   • Liberal  democracy;  characterized  by  near  universal  franchise  among  citizens,  the   opportunity  for  citizens  to  stand  for  election,  and  the  fair  and  frequent  conduct   of  elections     Revolutionary  regimes:   • Certain  elites,  groups,  and/or  the  majority  have  overthrown  the  given  socio-­‐ economic  and  political  order  and  undertaken  a  radical  transformation   • Most  are  born  in  violence   • Strong  militaristic,  security,  and  disciplinary  elements   12.  Regime  Change   • Regime  change  can  occur  through  conquest  by  a  foreign  power,  revolution,  coup   d'état  or  reconstruction  following  the  failure  of  a  state.  Regime  change  may   replace  all  or  part  of  the  state's  existing  institutions,  administrative  apparatus,   bureaucracy  and  other  elements.   13.  Political  Authority   • The  imposition  of  one’s  will  on  another  by  reason  of  legitimacy  –  because  the   subject  regards  the  decision-­‐maker  as  having  a  right  to  make  such  a  binding   decision   Max  weber  on  political  authority   • The  authority  of  the  eternal  yesterday,  of  the  mores  sanctified  through  the   unimaginably  ancient  recognition  and  habitual  orientation  to  conform.   • The  authority  of  the  extraordinary  and  personal  gift  of  grace,  the  absolutely   personal  devotion  and  personal  confidence  in  revelation,  heroism,  or  other   qualities  of  individual  leadership.   • Authority  by  virtue  of  legality,  the  belief  in  the  validity  of  legal  statute  and   functional  competence  based  on  rationally  created  rules.   Three  types  of  Authority   1)  Traditional  Authority   • Social  glue  that  held  pre  industrial  societies  together   • Power  given  due  to  custom  or  heredity   • Power  is  personal  and  incontestable   2)  Charismatic  Authority   • Grounded  in  personal  qualities  rather  than  in  tradition  or  birth   • Gained  authority  during  crisis  or  turmoil   • Natural  born  leaders,  set  apart  from  the  “ordinary”     3)  Legal-­‐Rationalism   • Based  in  the  rule  of  law   • Bureaucratic  and  impersonal  procedures  of  modern  institutions   • Courts,  constitutions,  bureaucracy,  and  legislature   • Authority  given  to  those  who  hold  positions  in  administer  and  abide  by   rules  of  these  institutions   14.  Civil  Disobedience   • The  conscious  violation  of  a  law  as  a  form  of  protest   Civil  disobedience  &  democracy   • Civil  disobedience  cannot  be  justified  in  a  democracy:  the  existence  of  lawful   channels  of  change  makes  civil  disobedience  unnecessary   • Civil  disobedience  lies  at  the  heart  of  a  democracy:  it  is  the  duty  of  every  citizen   to  disobey  an  unjust  law  –to  wait  is  to  perpetuate  an  injustice.   • Compassion  in  the  form  of  respectful  disagreement   Examples:   The  velvet  revolution:   • Non-­‐violent  revolution   • Dominated  by  students  and  other  popular  demonstrations  against  one-­‐party   communist  government  of  Czechoslovakia   • Collapsed  the  parties  control  of  the  country       Saffron  Revolution:   • Sparked  by  the  removal  fuel  subsides   • led  by  students  and  opposition  political  activists,  including  women,  the  protest   demonstrations  took  the  form  of  a  campaign  of  nonviolent  resistance,   sometimes  also  called  civil  resistance.   Occupy  Movement  and  Tahrir  Square   • The  Occupy  movement  is  an   international  protest  movement  against  social  and  economic  inequality,  its   primary  goal  being  to  make  the  economic  structure  and  power  relations  in   society  fairer.   • Tahrir  square  Over  50,000  protesters  first  occupied  the  square  on  25  January,   during  which  the  area's  wireless  services  were  reported  to  be  impaired.[5]  In  the   following  days  Tahrir  Square  continued  to  be  the  primary  destination  for   protests  in  Cairo   15.  State   • The  state  is  the  core  concept  in  political  science  that  defines  where  the  formal   and  institutional  terrain  of  politics  begins  and  ends   o An  international  legal  entity  defined  by  a  specific  territory,  population   and  government,  possessing  sovereignty       o Almost  all  states  comprise  diverse  ethinic,  national  and  racial  groups,   some  prefer  the  term  national  state   o Society  is  organized  economically,  socially,  and  politically  and  develops   coherence  over  time   o States  may  have  parliamentary  or  presidential  systems  of  government   Weber  on  the  state   A  human  community  that  (successfully)  claims  the  monopoly  of  the  legitimate  use  of   physical  force  within  a  given  territory   Montevideo  Convention  (1933)   a) permanent  population,   b) defined  territory,   c) established  government,   d) capacity  to  enter  into  relations  with  other   The  Night  Watchman  State   • Mark-­‐  state  operated  solely  in  the  interests  of  capital   • Participations  in  elections  and  holding  office  were  limited  to  property  owners   • Agents  of  state  were  part  time  politicians  and  fulltime  business  man   • Intervening  little  as  possible  in  economy   • Uphold  the  laws  of  property,  contract,  weight  and  measurement,  and  the   criminal  code   • Businessmen  required  employees  to  work  long  hours,  in  poor  working  conditions   • Poor  working  conditons  were  implemented  to  make  workers  want  to  work  in   these  undesirable  conditions  as  opposed  to  the  horrendous  conditions    of  the   poorhouse   The  Welfare  State   • A  form  of  governance  wherein  government  programs  and  policies  are  designed   to  protect  citizens  from  illness,  unemployment,  and  long-­‐term  disability   • Social  safety  net   • Associated  with  programs  such  as  public  education,  healthcare,  child  care,  and   wage  replacement  program   • Unemployment  insurance,  old  age  pensions,  maternity  benefits,  and  social   assistance   Neo-­‐Liberal  State   • Modification  on  19  century  economic  and  political  theory  that  advocates   deregulation  of  the  market   • A  non-­‐  interventionist  state   • Minimal  control  on  international  economic  interaction   • And  individual  freedom  and  responsibility   16.  Sovereignty   • A  legal  and  actual  whereby  states  recognize  no  higher  authority  either   domestically  or  externally  and  are  thus  free  to  act  as  they  wish   • A  states  right  to  manage  its  affairs  internally,  without  external  interference   based  on  legal  concept  of  the  equality  of  the  states   • No  external  authority  is  able  to  prevail  over  domestic  authority   • Soverign  power  exercised  in  national  setting  can  differ   o Parliamentary-­‐  legislative  and  executive  branches  of  government   o Presidential  system-­‐  function  on  basis  of  separation  of  powers   17.  Failed  state   • States  lose    their  monopoly  over  the  legitimate  use  of  violence  with  territories   • Loss  of  physical  control  of  territory   o Monopoly  of  legitimate  use  of  force   • No  legitimate  authority  so  ruler  cant  make  collective  decision   • Cant  provide  reasonable  public  service   • Cant  interact  with  other  state  as  a  full  member  of  international  community   • Population,  child  mortality,  births  per  woman   • Length  of  the  leaders  in  office   18.  Political  Economy   • The  study  of  the  intersection  of  political  and  economic  forces:  the  connection   between  states  and  markets,  power  and  wealth,  or  the  worlds  of  politics  and   economics.     Connection  between:   Power  &  Wealth                                                                      States  &  Markets   World  of  politics  &  Economics   • international  political  and  economic  activity   • National  to  international   GPE:  Global  Political  Economy   • and  economics  studied  globally   • Helps  understand  changes  in  economy,  society  and  politics   • Historical  Materialism:  the  social  power  of  dominant  classes,  may  be  though  of   as  originally  grounded  in  the  control  of  production,  the  material  basis  of  all   societies   o Critical  GPE  tradition   • Mercantilism:  the  predominant  understanding  of  the  national  and  international   th th economy  in  the  16  and  17  century   o Assumed  a  fixed  volume  of  world  trade  and  depicted  the  international   economy  as  a  competitive  site   o States  competed  with  each  other  to  achieve  a  positive  balance  of  trade   • Imperialism:  an  organization  of  the  international  political  economy  where  the   globe  is  divided  amongst  great  powers  into  empires   o Associated  with  colonialism   o For  Marxists;  the  expansion  of  capital  beyond  single  national  markets   • Dependency:  underdevelopment  in  the  periphery  is  the  result  of  the  exploitation   of  the  countries  in  that  area  by  core  industrialised  countries   o makes  countries  dependent   19.  Markets   • The  aggregation  of  individual  transactions,  or  the  purchase  and  sale  by   individuals  of  goods,  services,  and  labour.   Marx   • Relations  of  property  and  production   • Particularly  who  controls  the  means  of  production,  finances  the  processes,  and   controls  the  profits   • Social  worth  of  individuals  based  on  property  ownership,  price,  income,  costs   and  supply  and  demand   • Both  Marx  and  Weber  link  wealth  and  power  to  market  sphere   Market  economies   • Private  property  transactions   • Market  determines  production,  cost,  distribution   • Labour  free  market   • State  facilitates,  regulates  some   • Economic  internationalism   Milton  Friedman  (1912-­‐2006)   • Capitalism  and  Freedom  (1962)   • “History  suggests  ...  that  capitalism  is  a  necessary  condition  for  political   freedom.”   Charles  E.  Lindblom  (1917-­‐)   • Politics  and  Markets  (1977)   •  “[N]o  market  society  can  achieve  a  fully  developed  democracy  because  the   market  imprisons  the  policy-­‐making  process.”    20.  Karl  Polanyi  (“double  movement”)   • Ruled  against  the  free  market  view  of  the  economy   o That  meant  that  the  market  was  natural  and  self-­‐regulating,  meaning  that   no  government  intervention  was  needed   •  Insisted  that  the  economy  is  always  the  reflection  of  political  differences  and   contests.   • Markets  are  artificial  in  that  they  are  less  the  product  of  natural  processes  and   more  the  result  of  political  actors  seeking  politically  beneficial  arrangements   o All  markets  are  fundamentally  political   § None  are  free   • Nothing  natural  about  so-­‐called  natural  economics  forces  and  self-­‐regulating   markets   • Wanted  to  create  a  real  free  market   • To  get  to  the  free  market  have  to  bring  in  state   • Markets  are  not  nature  but  creature  of  us   • Two  different  relationships  between  state  and  market   o Oppression  and  liberate     21.  Citizenship  (jus  soli/jus  sanguinis/naturalisation)     • A  political  concept,  in  simplest  terms,  a  legal  member  of  a  country  or  a  full  menu   of  rights  and  obligations  that  define  and  individual’s  relationship  with  fellow   citizens  and  state.  T.H.  Marshall  wrote  a  seminal  essay  on  citizenship,  entitled   "Citizenship  and  Social  Class".  This  was  published  in  1950,  based  on  a  lecture   given  the  previous  year.  He  analysed  the  development  of  citizenship  as  a   development  of  civil,  then  political,  then  social  rights.   • History     o 1946,  Paul  Martin  introduces  Canada’s  first  Citizenship  bill.  “Citizenship  is   the  right  to  full  partnership  in  the  fortunes  and  in  the  future  of  the   nation.”   o Immigration  as  a  source  of  potential  citizens,  what  is  the  meaning  of   citizen.  The  way  we  answer  these  questions  has  implications  for  the  kind   of  society  and  political  community  to  which  we  aspire.   o Citizenship  has  been  defined  has  a  “Slippery  concept,  one  that  has   shifted,  and  as  a  contested  concept  that  generates  political  conflict  and   debate.     o Traced  back  to  Greece  and  Rome,  Citizenship  granted  the  privileges  and   obligations  of  self-­‐government  to  a  fortunate  few.   o Aristotelian  ideal,  one  who  both  rules  and  is  ruled.   o Citizen  must  be  a  male  of  known  genealogy,  a  patriarch,  a  warrior,  and   the  master  of  the  labor  of  others.   o Citizenship  as  a  Belonging,  the  question  of  citizenship  as  a  legal  status   o If  you  are  born  a  citizen  you  can  have  access  to  the  rights  of  a  citizen.     o Some  argue  the  citizenship  should  be  meaningful  and  limited.  In  America   legal  immigrants  don’t  have  the  same  rights  to  benefits  as  citizens.   o Others  say  people  argue  that  citizenship  should  be  given  to  all  members   who  are  settles  members  of  a  community  and  all  individuals  should  be   treated  equally.   o The  argument  of  Citizenship  and  immigration  was  heightened  at  the  end   of  WWII;  there  was  large-­‐scale  migration  to  North  America  and  Western   Europe     o Common  concerns  of  inclusion  and  exclusion  of  a  particular  community,   mutual  rights  in  and  duties  towards  the  community  and  full  participation   in  practice.   Jus  Soli(Latin  for:  Right  of  the  Soil)   • A  right  by  which  nationality  or  citizenship  can  be  recognized  to  any  individual   born  in  the  territory  of  the  related  state.  At  the  turn  of  the  18th  to  19th   century,  nation-­‐states  commonly  divided  themselves  between  those  granting   nationality  on  the  grounds  of  jus  soli  (France,  for  example)  and  those  granting  it   on  the  grouIds  of  jus  sanguinis  (right  of  blood)  (Germany,  for  example,  before   1990).         Jus  Sanguinis(right  of  blood)     • is  a  principle  of  nationality  law  by  which  citizenship  is  not  determined  by  place  of   birth  but  by  having  one  or  both  parents  who  are  citizens  of  the  nation.  It   contrasts  with  jus  soli  (Latin  for  "right  of  soil")   Naturalisation   • The  acquisition  of  citizenship  and  nationality  by  somebody  who  was  not  a  citizen   of  that  country  at  the  time  of  birth.  In  general,  basic  requirements  for   naturalization  are  that  the  applicant  hold  a  legal  status  as  a  full-­‐time  resident  for   a  minimum  period  of  time  and  that  the  applicant  promise  to  obey  and  uphold   that  country's  laws,  to  which  an  oath  or  pledge  of  allegiance  is  sometimes  added.   Some  countries  also  require  that  a  naturalized  national  must  renounce  any  other   citizenship  that  they  currently  hold,  forbidding  dual  citizenship,  but  whether  this   renunciation  actually  causes  loss  of  the  person's  original  citizenship  will  again   depend  on  the  laws  of  the  countries  involved.   Characteristics  of  Citizenship     1)  Civil  Rights  (18  century)-­‐  Referred  to  rights  necessary  for  individual  freedom,   including  “liberty  of  person,  freedom  of  speech,  thought  of  faith,  the  right  to  own   property  and  the  righth  to  justice.”   2)  Political  Rights  (19  century)-­‐  The  right  to  vote  and  run  for  political  office.     3)  Social  Rights  (20  century)-­‐  The  right  to  a  modicum  of  economic  welfare  and  security,   according  the  standards  main  society     • The  law  and  parliament  are  associated  with  the  two  main  elements  of   Citizenship.   • Universalism-­‐  The  basis  of  equality  or  universal  status.  “Everyone  is  equal  before   the  law,”  is  an  example.  Groups  at  disadvantages,  women  or  coloured,  usually   disagree.  They  draw  attention  to  the  fact  that  formal  citizen  rights  do  not   guarantee  full  participation  or  full  membership  for  everyone.   22.  Second  Class  Citizenship   • When  unequal  treatment  arises  in  accordance  with  some  characteristics  of  a   group  within  a  public  sphere.  When  the  primary  concerns  of  the  group  in   question  are  not  treated  within  the  public  sphere.     • A  second-­‐class  citizen  is  a  person  who  is  systematically  discriminated  against   within  a  state  or  other  political  jurisdiction,  despite  their  nominal  status  as  a   citizen  or  legal  resident  there.  While  not  necessarily  slaves,  outlaws  or  criminals,   second-­‐class  citizens  have  limited  legal  rights,  civil  rights  and  economic   opportunities,  and  are  often  subject  to  mistreatment  or  neglect  at  the  hands  of   their  putative  superiors.  Instead  of  being  protected  by  the  law,  the  law   disregards  a  second-­‐class  citizen,  or  it  may  actually  be  used  to  harass  them   (see  police  misconduct  and  racial  profiling).  Systems  with  de  facto  second-­‐class   citizenry  are  generally  regarded  as  violating  human  rights   23.  T.H.  Marshall   • T.H.  Marshall  wrote  a  seminal  essay  on  citizenship,  entitled  "Citizenship  and   Social  Class".  This  was  published  in  1950,  based  on  a  lecture  given  the  previous   year.  He  analysed  the  development  of  citizenship  as  a  development  of  civil,   then  political,  then  social  rights.  Social  Rights  are  awarded  not  on  the  basis  of   class  or  need,  but  rather  on  the  status  of  citizenship.  He  claimed  that  the   extension  of  social  rights  does  not  entail  the  destruction  of  social  classes  and   inequality.   • While  employing  some  concepts  from  Marxist  conflict  theory,  such  as  social   class  and  revolution,  Marshall's  analyses  are  based  on  functionalist  concerns   with  phenomena  such  as  "consensus,  the  normal,  and  anomie;  co-­‐operation  and   conflict;  structure  and  growth,"  within  self-­‐contained  systems   24.  Robert  Putnam  (Social  Capital)   • Capital     o Stock  of  accumulated  goods  at  a  time  usually  mere  goods  produced  then   received     o Accumulated  goods  devoted  to  production  of  other  goods     • Social  capital     o Features  of  social  life     o Networks,  norms  and  trust     o Enables  participants  act  together  more  efficiently  to  pursue  common  objectives     o Social  connections  and  attendant  norms  and  trust     25.  Political  Culture   • In  politics,  culture  is  as  culture  does.  It  is
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