PO110 Exam Review

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Political Science
Christopher Anderson

PO110: FINALEXAM PART 1 & 2: 1. Identify and explain the significance for the study of modern politics of five of the following. 2. Identify and explain the relationship between two of the following. Definitions 1. Political Culture/Socialization:  Is the process by which people learn their culture-including norms, values, and roles-and become aware of themselves as they interact with others.  The collection of the understandings, values, attitudes, and principles of a community or society that relate to its political organization, processes, disputes, and public policies. Out of a society’s political culture some important beliefs and values that structure the citizens’attitudes and expectations toward such basic political concepts as legitimacy, power, authority, and obedience (text book)  Political socializations - The process through which attitudes and knowledge about political matters are passed on within a society (text book)  agents of political socialization:  Those groups of people or institutions that convey political attitudes and values to others in society. •The Family •Educational Institutions •The Media •Religious Institutions •Peer Groups •Workplace •The State 2. Ideology:  Asystem of ideas and ideals, especially one that forms the basis of economic or political theory and policy.  Afairly coherent set of beliefs that not only explains what may be wrong with society, but also provides a vision of what society should be like (text book)  Areasonably consistent system of political beliefs that aspires to explain the world, to justify certain power relationships, and to maintain or transform existing institutions. 3. Liberty (Negative/Positive): Negative Liberty Positive liberty Freedom from something … The Right to something … Can be said as freedom from, or the Can be said as freedom to or absence of constraints. The problem with empowerment. It is leveling the playing negative liberty is that it can have fields to fulfill your potential; it is potentially negative effects on others, assistance in a way and may suppress suppressing them while practicing your individual choice, thus restricting individual rights. negative liberty. For example, progressive tax takes more from the wealthier and gives through social programs that assist the poor. 4. Equality (Formal/Substantive):  Prescribes equal treatment of all people regardless of circumstances, on the understanding that all have the same rights and entitlements. Its underlying logic is that by extending equal rights to all, inequality has been eliminated.  Involves achieving equitable outcomes as well as equal opportunity. It takes into account the effects of past discrimination. It recognises that rights, entitlements, opportunities and access are not equally distributed throughout society. 5. The Major Ideologies: Radical Liberal Conservative Reactionary Fascism Communism Libertarianism Anarchism Individual/ Emotional more important Rational but constraints Rational Co-op society than rational Need Strong Leader- Born Free Mutual aid Community Candara State is artificial Progressive Strong Leader (professional, Cooperative Strip back the state Community heroic) Progressive Don’t need community “No head” Struggle Egalitarian Tradition Social Hierarchy Us · Individualist · Homogeneity (fitting Progressive in, allowing to be lead) Traditional Destroy the enemy Rights and · Collective Equal Negative F +/- Rights Freedoms Responsibility to follow Positive F Formal Equality Equality of community Substantive Equality Classless The State Personalized (ie. Hitler is thPersonalized (ie. Castro Minimum state Eradicated people) revolution) State= Propaganda Militaristic violence +/- economy Propaganda Defines society · Interventionist Nationalist Nationalist Militaristic 6. The State of Nature:  Thomas Hobbes: life is “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short”  “...a State of perfect freedom to order their actions...as they think fit...with-out asking leave, or depending on the Will of any other Man.” – John Locke  The a priori assumption is in favour of freedom [in human relations]. – J.S. Mill 7. Governance: The action or manner of governing. “…a dynamic process through which the means are found to make choices for collective adaptation to the surrounding economy and society.” – Bob Jessep 8. Institutions: Asociety or organization founded for a religious, educational, social, or similar purpose. An established law, practice, or custom. “Deliberate, formalized, and expected patterns of behaviour.” – Brodie and Rein 9. Democracy (Ancient/American Revolutionary/Modern; Direct/Indirect): Asystem of government by the whole population or all the eligible members of a state, typically through elected representatives. Demos + Kratos = The rule of the people Ancient American Modern Direct Indirect Revolutionary (1800)  Direct  Delegated Democracy is Direct Representati participation representati a form of democracy ve of an equal on of an government in is a form of democracy citizenry* equal which all democracy is a variety citizenry* eligible in which of  Relatively citizens people democracy small scale  Relatively large scale participate decide founded on  Participation equally— policy the principle not quite  Participation either directly initiatives of elected voluntary voluntary or through directly, as officials elected opposed to a representing  No political  Soon representative representati a group of parties or defined by s—in the ve people, as bureaucracy parties and a proposal, democracy opposed to growing development, in which direct  Participation bureaucracy restricted to and creation people vote democracy. free adult  Participation of laws for males restricted to representati ves who  Broad white, adult, tax- then decide understandi paying/prop policy ng of the erty-owning initiatives public sphere males  More  More focus on limited idea of the public community sphere good than individual  More focus rights on individual rights over community good 10.Subject/Citizen:  Aperson or thing that is being discussed, described, or dealt with.  Alegally recognized subject or national of a state or commonwealth, either native or naturalized. 11.State/Government: Asystem of government by the whole population or all the eligible members of a state, typically through elected representatives. 12.Failed State:  Afailed state is a state perceived as having failed at some of the basic conditions and responsibilities of a sovereign government.  Astate that no longer has “a monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force within [its] given territory”  Erosion of legitimate authority to make collective decisions  Inability to provide reasonable public services/ governance  Inability to interact with other states as a full member of the international community 13.Citizenship (legal and social):  Alegal bond between a state, its laws, and an individual encompassing both rights and responsibilities on the part of the state and the individual in social, economic, and political dimensions.  Social citizenship was a term first coined by T.H. Marshall, who argued that the ideal citizenship experience entails access to political, civil and social rights in a state 14.Multiculturalism:  Apolicy sometimes adopted in a state characterized by cultural pluralism that supports ethnic and cultural groups in maintaining their customs and traditions, often with public financial assistance.  Dimensions of multiculturalism: •Indigenous Peoples •Substate/Minority Nationalisms •Immigrant Groups •Metics 15. Constitution (written, unwritten, convention): The body of fundamental laws, rules, and practices that defines the basic structures of government, allocates power among governmental institutions, and regulates the relationship between citizens and the state. Written Unwritten Convention Aconstitution whose Aconstitution whose An unwritten rule of fundamental provisions subject matter is dispersed constitutional behaviour have been reduced to a across a variety of statutes, that fills in gaps in the single document or set of court rulings, and unwritten written constitution and documents political processes known as conditions the exercise of constitutional conventions legal powers under the constitution. While considered obligatory, such rules are not legally enforceable. 16. Constitutionalism: The idea that the constitution should limit the state by separating powers among different branches and levels of government and protecting the rights of individuals and minorities through a bill of rights. 17. Unitary/Federal Systems:  Aform of government in which the sovereign powers of the state are unified within the central government, and other levels of government exercise only those powers delegated to them by the national government.  Aform of government in which the sovereign powers of the state are formally divided under a constitution between two levels of government, neither of which is subordinate to the other. 18. Head of State/Government: 19.Presidential/Parliamentary Government:  Presidential •Rejection of British parliamentary government •Separation of powers across government •Checks and balances between actors (veto power) •Public influences shape of government more  Parliamentary •Extension of British parliamentary government •Fusion of powers within government •Responsibility between actors (accountability) •Public influences shape of government less 20.Separation of Powers/Fusion of Powers:  Aprinciple of constitutional government that is usually taken to mean that the legislative, executive, and judicial functions of the state should be carried out by separate branches of government. No one may hold office in more than one branch at the same time.  In parliamentary systems, the joint exercise of legislative and executive powers by the prime minister and members of the cabinet, who simultaneously hold office in the legislative and executive branches of government. 21.Responsible/Representative Government: Adefining principle of Westminster-style parliamentary governments, which states that the cabinet may only hold office as long as it has majority support in the legislature (or lower house in a bicameral parliament) for votes of confidence. 22.Unicameral/Bicameral:  one chamber  (of a legislative body) having two branches or chambers. 23.Political
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