PO111 Final Exam Review.docx

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Political Science
Debora Vannijnatten

PO111 - Final Exam Review (Midterm #1) -Power: Poli always involves power; ability of one actor/group to impose will on others -influences resolution or conflict, hard (force) & soft (manipulation) power -3 types: -Coercion: force, intimidation, psychological pressure -Authority: people consent to use of power (legitimacy) -Influence: sway opinions and preferences -State: organization that has a monopoly and can use force legitimately -state: structure of rule over geo area that exercises power/country: geo location -state is law, institutions, sovereign entity, internally recognized entity, group of people & idea -functions: provide security, settle disputes according to society values, political framework, protection of rights/support of national, also have to provide economic framework for health/education & dist. of wealth -sovereignty: no higher power in country, state has monopoly of use on force -govt: specialized activity of people/institutions to make/enforce collective decisions in state -govt is institution that runs the state, govt may change but state doesn't (govt is driver, state is car) -freedom house "map of demo": country rated on 1-7 scale, most free to least free -1st focus: political rights; people participate freely in political process -2nd focus: civil liberties; freedom of expression/belief, associational/organizational rights, rule of law, personal autonomy and individual rights -7 democratic ideals: -political sovereignty; people hold the supreme authority to throw rascals out -political equality; each citizens has the same weight in voting/political decision making, needed to show our political interests -political competition: elections are key, must be fair, legitimate -political liberty; liberties protect individual -negative; freedoms from, speech, association, religion, press, fair trial, right to bear arms, sexual orientation -positive; provided by govt; education/healthcare -majority rule; each vote counted equally, majority must be accepted, oligarchy is alternative which people rule by few -minority rights; any citizen is able to get equality, includes individual rights, applies to all types of people -rule of law; govt authority exercised only when written/publicly disclosed laws, safeguard against arbitrary governance, China rule by law -democratic elitism; citizens give law making authority to elected reps, citizens are taken into consideration in larger numbers, system takes into account popular sovereignty because they need to compete for votes, aka rep democracy -deliberative democracy: all citizens involved in decision making, good for system, citizens take part in debate -constitutions: provide a body of rules/principles according which state is governed, includes who/what institutions to carry major functions of government, outlines basic rights and obligations of citizens and is basic source of law -fulfills Rule of Law -2 types of constitutions: written & unwritten; Britain has unwritten made up of ancient documents, acts of parliament -lay down foundations for power relations such as diff parts if state (horizontal) and different levels of govt (vertical) -Horizontal: legislative branch/lawmakers, executive branch/implementers and judicial/adjudicators, parliamentary system considered a fusion of power system -Vertical: powers include unitary & federal systems -unitary system; central govt power over regional govt (Britain & France) -federal system: central & regional govt cannot rule over each other (Canada) -ETA - Basques Fatherland and Freedom: basques have long wanted their own govt they have turned to violence, ethnic group that wants independance -Relations Betweens State and Citizens: British parliament is to safeguard rights of citizens not courts while American tradition is set out rights in bill of rights enforced in courts (political equality, liberty & minority rights) -Canadian Constitutions: created democratic parliamentary system based on British, concentrates power in hand of few decision makers -Legislatures: bring about popular sovereignty and rep people, form a govt by majority rule -Elections: critical for popular sovereignty, political competition and for most minimalist versions of democracy (democratic elitism), also key for majority rule, minorities -Single Member Plurality System: -one rep per geo areas, winner take all system -direct rep and citizen link -Ridings: sections in a geo area and all try to have the same number, 308 Ridings in Canada and each has seperate elections and candidates -elections like horse races, whoever gets nose past line first wins -Proportional rep system: number of seats dp to received number of votes -structured by party lists and citizens have no say in who is chosen -extremely unlikely to get a majority govt but minorities better rep -more political competition -German hybrid system: mixed member proportional system, means that there 2 votes, one candidate and party list and 5% rule -Parties: connect society & state by bridge between politics & citizens -4 critical functions: policies & programs, package to easily understand, recruit leaders/oversee govt depending on whether they are in govt of opposition -groups of people nominate candidates and contest elections -seek to form a govt -functions to serve to socialize/mobilize -play a role in recruiting political leaders -Ideologies: seek to promote particular political & social order and tend to action-oriented, promoting particular economy & social orders -LEFT: socialists, want more govt involvement in economy, policies help disadvantages and redistribute income, taxation constant with income, collective rather than individual RIGHT: conservatives, less govt control, reliance on the market & fewer govt regulations. no special treatment for I.G. & lower taxes -Parties & Democracy: decline of ideological differences among parties explain low voter turnout -SMP system encourages pragmatic or broad parties, better able to construct majorities -PR system promotes ideological/interest parties, harder to construct majorities but is good at opposition function -Islamic Republic of Iran: theocracy, rule by clerics with some concessions to democracy -jurists guardianship (jurists learned islamic law) -SYSTEM: -Supreme (religious) leader: Ayatollah Ali Khameini has a wide range of responsibility and forces -revolutionary guard of internal defines of nation, charge of armed forces, judiciary & media -all laws conform to shari'a Council of Guardians: council decides who run for office in Majles and can remove presidency on advice of Supreme Leader, these 2 not elected Executive: people elect the president for 4 year term and forms a legislative branch and bureaucracy Majles: similar number to canada and elected by people Judiciary: different systems of groups Clerics: elect supreme leader and can remove him under extreme circumstances *This system appears as mix of elements: the problem is later of officials that can practice arbitrary rule Political Equality: council barred 2000 people from participating contesting 2004 election Political Liberty: freedom of expression is severely limited, because media is state controlled -religious freedom is also limited, morals police intimidation for example women need to dress correctly and is becoming more repressive Popular Sovereignty: unelected council approves legislation passed by parliament and regular vetoes of legislation -elections first intro in 1999 and overwhelming support -supreme leader trying to balance tendencies in regime more conservative rile in mind people won't like it Majority Rule: Iranians cannot change their government democratically, supreme leader is appointed for life and council of guardians isn't elected Minority Rights: additional seats in Majles for non-muslims for settling disputes -religious minorities may practice faith cannot hold senior govt, restrictions in education, property ownership and Bahai's face official discrimination -minorities permit to establish association -competition for parliamentary seats is restricted Rule of Law: judiciary not independent, supreme leaders appoint chief of justice who then appoints the judge -political sensitive cases tied in revolutionary courts -Republic of China: in 2013 hold more elections than any other country, 600 million people are eligible to vote and 1M village -fear of political competition is starting to emerge and less communist party control -political reforms must follow economic reform and china growing 8% per year, not black and white -Authoritarian Govt: regimes umbrella term for govt whose authority is not put to the test in election but totalitarian opposition not tolerated -calling regime authoritarian doesn't say much -right wing conservative usually military like Saudi Arabia, Latin America, usually unstable don't last long -Non-democratic government: -Political inequality -Elite rule -Tyranny (self-interested rulers USSR Stalin) or oligarchy (rule by few) -Political subjugation (restrained) -Repression of minorities -Power monopoly (not shared) -Arbitrary (rule by law) PO111 - Final Exam Review (Midterm #2) -IR: can mean international or world politics after WW1 -thought relations between states/maintenance of intl order should be subject of study in own right without -NGOs: non-govt organizations -Cosmopolitanism: idea of global citizen belonging to one world not just one country, also reps different ethical version of intl order -State: distinctive community w/ own set of rules and practices that are separate from other communities -IR states refer to modern sovereign states and posses legal personality -Nation: people as opposed to a territorial entity -Nationalism: ideology calls for political organization to be based on national identity -no state in the world contains a single homogenous nation -tough distinction between nation & state shows UN is not completely accurate -Modern State System: relationship between a permanent population and defined territory -Aristotle: saw state as natural habitat for humans -man as political animal -in IR, Athens stands out as historic empire of state driven by imperatives of political realism -Empires: need to consider states existed in various parts of time in various forms -first empires around river because of agriculture -early 4000BCE saw rise of Babylonian & Persian empires -British empire was largest/strongest/most influential of all empires in Europe -transmission of culture influenced by European imperialism -beginnings of contemporary global interdependence traced to Euro empires -Modernity: phenomenon associated with rise of European science & tech, began around 1500, led to industrialization & increased military power as well as political/social changed -Emergence of Sovereignty: meant to guarantee states intervention in domestic affairs -sovereignty guaranteed freedom of all states/ruling elements -difficult to put in practice -theory where everyone is sovereign and nothing is higher is paradoxical, creating intl anarchy -Thomas Hobbes: best known theorist for sovereignty -writer for Leviathan and stood in same position as Machiavelli -all powerful sovereign could establish order -emergence of nationalism also imp -starts by positioning nature of state & human nature -state of nature lacks all necessary for good life -argued individuals must contract together to live under a single political authority that enforces orders/laws -Imperialism: increased emergence of sovereign states -after WW2 colonialism was questioned, couldn't afford colonies -Weak States: can't organize/regulate societies & can't deliver adequate range of political/social/eco
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