Section One Nigeria and Conflict Terms and People:
Political Violence: terrorism, political groups, governments, militaries (coup), groups in
society, Revolutions, civil wars, and human rights abuse to the people of a country.
Ethnicity: groups with common traditions, beliefs, and values, history, which makes it
different from other groups. Hutus and Tutsis were examples of ethnic groups that were
fluid (interconnected) before colonialism. Yoruba didn’t exists before colonialism and
didn’t self identify until the colonialists.
Colonialism and Ethnicity: creates inequalities between ethnic groups, e.g. Unfair
education for one, or more infrastructures to a certain region with certain ethnic groups.
Favoritism. Christian’s god education in Nigeria. People had nationalism when they
became independent but it faded and they didn’t.
Instrumentalism Ethnicity: No middle class, one dominates group, leads to scarcity in
resources, elite competition. Or. Some groups sponsor a small child who then returns the
favors he/she received once they have a steady job and education. He could then hire
them and favor them over the other populations.
Clientelism: State = Power but ethnic divisions lead to more powerful figures (patrons)
and less powerful (clients) pay for support the patrons who are benefiting more from the
relationship. Leads to corruption.
Oil: If there is an ethnic group that controls oil they created conflicts between the people
benefitting for the oil and the people that do not benefit from these oil revenues.
Ethnic Divisions: make tensions worse. Like in Nigeria they always decentralize powers
and keep creating more states. Each state competes with the other states for oil. Also
there are divisions for religion and Christianity and Muslims. Some states have been
allowed to enact Sharia law in the North.
Multicultural Ethnicity: People from the same group help them to fit in to a new society
such as Canada.
Biafra War: followed the coup in the north the Igbo in the southeast. This was seen as
Igbo dominance and the Northerners started to kill off the Igbos including Ironsi. South
east eventually lost and was broken up into different states. 2 million people died.
Ken Saro Wiwa: Created MOSOP: movement for the survival of the Ogoni people. Set
up nonviolent movements and did talks in the UN. Peaceful and educated man.
Pres. Sani Abacha: moved military into Ogani leaned, arrested and executed Wiwa and 8
others. Eventually died of a heart attack and the Nigerian population celebrated. Boko Harram: western education is forbidden or wrong and started Sharia Law.
Attacked political leaders, churches (Christians) and other terrorist attacks to try and stop
the spread of Western ideas. Started because there was an outrage that the people of
Nigeria didn’t benefit from the large oil profits.
Section Two Gender and Development In Iran Terms and People:
Gender: distinct from biological sex, it is the set of socially constructed distinctions a
society makes between men and women.
Domestic Violence: leading cause of death or injury for women in the world that is
largely ignored. 80% in Africa.
Dowry Murders: murder of a married women by her husband or in/laws because of
dissatisfaction in the amount of dowry. 15,000 women die yearly because of this.
Missing Girls: amount of women in the population compared to how many there would
be if there wasn’t gender discrimination. Infanticide common in India and China. 75100
million missing women in India and China and 40 million in the rest of the world.
Labor: sexual division of labor makes it harder for women to obtain jobs. They work in
the informal section which is unregulated and un taxed. 75% agriculture are women but
1% of land is owned by them.
Poverty: there are more poor women then poor men. Triple Burden working In the home,
out of the home, and volunteer world in the developing world.
Credit: Men will not give women credit. Micro credit is geared towards women (Bolsa
Familia.) Women are taking the loans with high interest rates even though they are small
amount of money.
Health and Education:
Export Processing Zones/Maquiladoras. (EPZ): tax free industrial areas for foreign
companies. Labor laws are suspended or don’t exist and workers are unprotected. 43
million workers and 80% are women, who are regulated for drinking water and bathroom
breaks. Also subject to pregnancy tests and fired if they are subject to sexual abuse to
1967 Family Protection Act and Family Protection Law Iran: Abolished extra
judiciary divorce, legal marriage age rose to 18, and limits were put on polygamy.
(Permission from the first wife, and financial support for the second wife.) Restricted use
of hijab 1979 Legislation in Iran: Male clerics took over the laws. Women and children were
considered property of the man. Marriage age lowered to 9 and restrictions on polygamy
1992 Legislation in Iran: Legal age raised to puberty, women could not apply for
divorce and child custody after divorce, Still women were stoned to death for cheating.
2008 Approved but 2010 Enacted Legislation: Introduced Sighen or Mat’a (temporary
marriage) : between 1 hour and 99 years the marriage is agreed upon and women receive
a dowry. Seen as legal form of prostitution.
Post Revolution Labor and Education for Women: women were barred for working in
a lot of positions. After they went to war women had to take some of the jobs that men
didn’t have. The trends continued but they don’t get the good jobs. The doctors that are
women only treat women.
Shirin Ebadi: Activist that won Nobel Peace Prize. Part of the Green movement.
Politics, Food Security and Rural Development In India Terms and People:
Livelihoods: the capabilities assets (material and social) and activities required to reach
means of living.
Rural Livelihoods: what is the policy or rule. What are the residents are they land
owners or land workers. Incomes that come to the rural populations are often non rural.
Not just economic activities but what kind of access or lack or access they have. Access
to political information or no power or no?
Food Security: When all people at all times have physical and economic access to
sufficient, safe, and nutritious food to meet dietary needs for active/ healthy life. 3 pillars.
1. Access. 2. Availability. 3. Utilization.
Availability NeoMalthusian Perspective: growth in population would lead to world
wide famine due to the lack of resources. (this was before scientific breakthroughs)
Thomus Malthus: population would grow indefinitely with limited resources. Famine
would regulate population and balance demand for food.
Access Amarty a Sen: “starvation is a characteristic of some people not having enough
food to eat, not of there not being enough food for them to eat.” (book: Poverty and
Famine) 1. 4 sources of food, production, trade, labor, gifts. 2. Famine caused by failures
in access to food for groups of individuals. 3. Even in crop failure wealthy families can
eat. 4. Farmers are often more venerable to famine.
Food Security Utilization: Are people healthy enough to make use of nutrients in their
diets. Food Targets: half the number of starving people in the world in half by 2015. This
target would not be met.
Millennium Development Goals: MDGs: Turn of the century there’re was a world
summit. They laid out 8 different goals to eradicate poverty and huger by 2015 and they
aren’t going to be met.
1. Acute crisis, which in its worse form is famine. Most dramatic form and almost always
temporary. Affects large numbers of people who are normally not hungry. Can be
prevented if poor people maintain their entitlement to food (cash transfers). Children are
the most venerable. Avoid this by having reserves of food for these crises.
2. Chronic or persistent under nutrient. Affects millions of people that don’t have enough
food to get their protein. Often robs people of vitality and don’t let them labor properly so
they end up with illnesses. Where agriculture is the main source the problem is often
seasonal under Chronic forms. For kids under the age of three are the most at risk. For
young mothers it leads to low berth weight. Three solutions. 1. Get people out of poverty.
2. Keep food prices low. 3. Ensure reasonable health and hygiene.
3. Deficiency and micronutrients: talks about Iron Vitamin A and Iodine. Results when
the diets are varied. 2 billion people are affected.
Green Revolution in India: scientific developments given to the developing world to
increase productivity. Also aims to increase food availability. 1968.
• Year round growth
• Heavier larger loads of grain for crops
• Hybrid seeds
• Faster turn around
• Increased demand for crops in these countries
Rice and Wheat by Rockafella. HYV (high yield Variety) the Proportion of land was
increasing and other crops weren’t growing. Lead to increases in income.
Problems of Green Revolution: poverty worsened for some groups. If there is one bad
year they cant afford seeds for the next. Environmental damage.
Food Security Bill:
• Everyone is guaranteed 5 kilos of rice who qualifies
• Very cheap prices for 70% of the pop or 80 mill people
• Fails to do food for all does not cover everyone or people that don’t qualify
• Corruption and black market its not stored properly so its getting eaten by rats
• Out of school children don’t get access to food or unorganized urban workers
• The bill excludes rather than includes
• Publicity Stunt For the Current President and rural farmers are voting
• It misses the chance to support poor producers from producing locally grown
foods. Oligarchy: large powerful landowners that help cause class struggle (Filipino sugar
growers) they likely have large political control.
Chico Mendes: Union leader in Brazil. Helped stop ranchers destroying amazon forests.
He was assassinated and the people involved got low jail sentence and walk free after a
Kulaks: Mid rangeland owners and affluent peasants. Often have some regional political
control but not national.
Peasants: family farmers with small plots of land and traditional lifestyles. Poor,
Uneducated, and dependent on the upper class.
Politics, Food, Security, and Urban Development India:
Urban Growth: rise in proportion of people living in an urban area apposed to rural.
Dispersed ▯Condensed. Hope for less “backwards” society. Easier to provide education
and information (media.) People move for services, economic reasons, push/pull factors.
People moving from rural to urban areas at a much faster rate than they can grow the
infrastructure. 50% people are below poverty line in urban areas.
Urban Policy: channeled more money to urban areas at the expense of the rural
development such as food subsidies. Terms of trade for trade for exports are not
favorable. Trying to export manufacturing goods in EPZ. Urban residents have the most
money and political influence they are not large landowners. Policy always favors the
richer population not the urban people in general private sector gets the best.
Urban Poverty: not as high a rate of poverty but urban = higher malnutrition level.
Seasonal poverty in rural areas is diff from urban poverty, which can be year round.
Young single people migrate to urban areas to try and get education but it is still difficult
to find. Too many people are coming so the opportunities that are there are getting taken